تست سیتی زن شیپ (تبعیت) کانادا (قسمت تاریخ)
امتحان سیتی زن شیپ کانادا پلی است که مهاجران به کانادا باید از اون بگذرن . متقاضیان سیتی زن شیپی باید دارای شرایطی باشن مثله تمامی شرایط اقامتی ، تسلط به زبان های رسمی کانادا یعنی انگلیسی و یا فرانسه ، سابقه خوب و … متقاضی بایستی که دانش کافی در مورد کشور کانادا داشته باشه. امتحان سیتی زن شیپی بشکل کتبی گرفته میشه . از متقاضیان راجع به سیستم دولت های فدرال و استانی و همچنین دانش اونا راجع به تاریخ و جغرافیای کانادا سوال میشه . متقاضیانی که قبول میشن برای گرفتن سیتی زن شیپ کانادایی باید طی یک مراسم خاص قسم خورده و سپس کارت سیتی زن شیپ خود را دریافت نمایند.
کسانی که میخواهند امتحان بدهن کتاب ویژه ای رو باید مطالعه نماین که بشکل آنلاین هم میشود آنرا تهیه کرد . (کلیک کنید Study Guide – Discover Canada ) . خواندن مطالب این کتاب ممکن است برای بعضی از مهاجران کمی سخت باشه . یکی از دوستان خیلی خوبم لغتهای مهم این کتاب رو ترجمه کرده که بقول خودشان تا هم انگلیسیشان تقویت بشه و هم بتونن امتحان رو خوب پس کنن . از وی تقاضا کردم تا مطالبش رو در اختیار دیگر هموطنان هم قرار بدهن . خوشبختانه ایشون قبول کردن .
با تشکر از دوست یاد شده ، مطلب ذیل یکی از بخشهای کتاب قید شده هستش و در مورد تاریخ کانادایه . هر جا که علامت [ ] رو مشاهده نمائین ، ترجمه لغت در آخر مقاله موجوده و با دیدن (Picture) ، لازمه که تصویر را در قسمت تاریخ وبسایت یاد شده بالا مشاهده نمائین . در مورد تاریخ آنلاین کانادا میتونین به اینجا کلیک کنین که MP3 اونم موجوده . واسه PDF کل کتاب میتونین به اینجا کلیک کنین . اگه دوستان مهاجر ایرونی علاقمند باشن در آتیه میتونم بخشهای دیگه رو هم در اختیارشان قرار بدم .
(Have a good mark in exam)
fur trade era
When Europeans explored Canada they found all regions occupied by native peoples they called Indians, because the first explorers thought they had reached the East Indies. The native people lived off the land, some by hunting and gathering, others by raising crops. The Huron-Wendat of the Great Lakes region, like the Cree and Dene of the Northwest, were hunter-gatherers. The Iroquois were hunters and farmers. The Sioux were nomadic, following the bison (buffalo) herd. The Inuit lived off Arctic wildlife. West Coast natives preserved fish by drying and smoking. Warfare was common among Aboriginal groups as they competed for land, resources, and prestige.
The arrival of European traders, missionaries, soldiers, and colonists changed the native way of life forever. Large numbers of Aboriginals died of European diseases to which they lacked immunity. However, Aboriginals and Europeans formed strong economic and military bonds in the first 200 years of coexistence which laid the foundations of Canada.
The first europeans
The Vikings from Iceland who colonized Greenland 1,000 years ago also reached Labrador and the island of Newfoundland. The remains of their settlement, l’Anse aux Meadows, are a World Heritage site.
European exploration began in earnest in 1497 with the expedition of John Cabot, who was the first to draw a map of Canada’s east coast.
(Picture)John Cabot, an Italian immigrant to England, was the first to map Canada’s Atlantic shore,
setting foot on Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island in 1497 and claiming the
New Founde Land for England. English settlement did not begin until 1610
(Picture)Jacques Cartier was the
first European to explore
the St. Lawrence River
and to set eyes on
present-day Quebec City
Exploring a river, naming Canada
Between 1534 and 1542, Jacques Cartier made three voyages across the Atlantic, claiming the land for King Francis I of France. Cartier heard two captured guides speak the Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village.” By the 1550s, the name of Canada began appearing on maps.
Royal New France
In 1604, the first European settlement north of Florida was established by French explorers Pierre de Monts and Samuel de Champlain, first on St. Croix Island (in present-day Maine), then at Port-Royal, in Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia). In 1608 Champlain built a fortress at what is now Quebec City. The colonists struggled against a harsh climate. Champlain allied the colony with the Algonquin, Montagnais, and Huron, historic enemies of the Iroquois, a confederation of five (later six) First Nations who battled with the French settlements for a century. The French and the Iroquois made peace in 1701.
The French and Aboriginal people collaborated in the vast fur-trade economy, driven by the demand for beaver pelts in Europe. Outstanding leaders like Jean Talon, Bishop Laval, and Count Frontenac built a French Empire in North America that reached from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
(Picture) (From Left to Right)
Count Frontenac refused to surrender Quebec to the English in 1690, saying: “My only reply will be from the mouths of my cannons!”
Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d’Iberville, was a great hero of New France, winning many victories
over the English, from James Bay in the north to Nevis in the Caribbean, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries
Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester), as Governor of Quebec, defended the rights of the Canadiens, defeated an American military invasion of Quebec in 1775, and supervised the Loyalist migration to Nova Scotia and Quebec in 1782-83
Struggle for a continent
In 1670, King Charles II of England granted the Hudson’s Bay Company exclusive trading rights over the watershed draining into Hudson Bay. For the next 100 years the Company competed with Montreal-based traders. The skilled and courageous men who travelled by canoe were called voyageurs and coureurs des bois, and formed strong alliances with First Nations.
English colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, dating from the early 1600s, eventually became richer and more populous than New France. In the 1700s France and Great Britain battled for control of North America. In 1759, the British defeated the French in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City — marking the end of France’s empire in America. The commanders of both armies, Brigadier James Wolfe and the Marquis de Montcalm, were killed leading their troops in battle.
The province of Quebec
Following the war, Great Britain renamed the colony the “Province of Quebec.” The French-speaking Catholic people, known as habitants or Canadiens, strove to preserve their way of life in the English-speaking, Protestant-ruled British Empire.
A tradition of accommodation
To better govern the French Roman Catholic majority, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act of 1774. One of the constitutional foundations of Canada, the Quebec Act accommodated the principles of British institutions to the reality of the province. It allowed religious freedom for Catholics and permitted them to hold public office, a practice not then allowed in Britain. It established English criminal law and French civil law.
United empire loyalists
In 1776, the thirteen British colonies to the south of Quebec declared independence and formed the United States. North America was again divided by war. More than 40,000 people loyal to the Crown, called “Loyalists,” fled the oppression of the American Revolution to settle in Nova Scotia and Quebec. Joseph Brant led thousands of Loyalist Mohawk Indians into Canada. The Loyalists came from Dutch, German, British, Scandinavian, Aboriginal and other origins and from Presbyterian, Anglican, Baptist, Methodist, Jewish, Quaker, and Catholic religious backgrounds. About 3,000 black Loyalists, freedmen and slaves, came north seeking a better life. In turn, in 1792, some black Nova Scotians, who were given poor land, moved on to establish Freetown, Sierra Leone (West Africa), a new British colony for freed slaves.
(Picture)The first elected Assembly of Lower Canada, in Quebec City, debates
whether to use both French and English, January 21, 1793
The Beginnings of Democracy
Democratic institutions developed gradually. The first representative assembly was elected in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1758. Prince Edward Island followed in 1773, New Brunswick in 1785. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada (later Ontario), which was mainly Loyalist, Protestant, and English-speaking, and Lower Canada (later Quebec), heavily Catholic and French-speaking.
The Act also granted to the Canadas, for the first time, legislative assemblies elected by the people. The name Canada also became official at this time and has been used ever since. The Atlantic colonies and the two Canadas were known collectively as British North America.
(Picture)From left to right:
Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe
was Upper Canada’s first Lieutenant Governor
and founder of the City of York (now Toronto).
Simcoe also made Upper Canada the first
province in the British Empire to abolish slavery
Mary Ann (Shadd) Carey was an outspoken
activist in the movement to abolish slavery
in the USA. In 1853 she became the first woman
publisher in Canada, helping to found and edit
The Provincial Freeman, a weekly newspaper dedicated
to anti-slavery, black immigration to Canada,
temperance (urging people to drink less alcohol),
and upholding British rule
Abolition of slavery
Slavery has existed all over the world, from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East to the Americas. The first movement to abolish the transatlantic slave trade emerged in the British Parliament in the late 1700s. In 1793, Upper Canada, led by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, a Loyalist military officer, became the first province in the Empire to move toward abolition. In 1807, the British Parliament prohibited the buying and selling of slaves, and in 1833 abolished slavery throughout the Empire. Thousands of slaves escaped from the United States, followed “the North Star,” and settled in Canada via the Underground Railroad, a Christian anti-slavery network.
A growing economy
The first companies in Canada were formed during the French and British regimes and competed for the fur trade. The Hudson’s Bay Company, with French, British, and Aboriginal employees, came to dominate the trade in the northwest from Fort Garry (Winnipeg) and Fort Edmonton to Fort Langley (near Vancouver) and Fort Victoria — trading posts that later became cities.
The first financial institutions opened in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The Montreal Stock Exchange opened in 1832. For centuries Canada’s economy was based mainly on farming and on exporting natural resources such as fur, fish, and timber, transported by roads, lakes, rivers and canals.
(Picture)From left to right: HMS Shannon, a Royal Navy frigate, leads the captured USS Chesapeake
into Halifax harbour, 1813. There were also naval battles on the Great Lakes
Major General Sir Isaac Brock and Chief Tecumseh. Together, British troops, First Nations,
and Canadian volunteers defeated an American invasion in 1812-14
The War of 1812
After the defeat of Napoleon’s fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), the Royal Navy ruled the waves. But Americans resented British interference with their shipping. The USA believed that it would be easy to conquer Canada and launched an invasion in June 1812. Canadian volunteers and First Nations, including Shawnee led by Chief Tecumseh, supported British soldiers in Canada’s defence. In July, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock captured Detroit but was killed while defeating an American attack at Queenston Heights, near Niagara Falls. In 1813, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles de Salaberry and 460 soldiers, mostly Canadiens, turned back 4,000 American invaders at Châteauguay, south of Montreal. The Americans burned Government House and the Parliament Buildings in York (now Toronto). In retaliation in 1814, the British burned down the White House and other public buildings in Washington, D.C. The leader of that expedition, Major General Robert Ross, died in battle soon afterwards and was buried in Halifax with full military honours.
helped defend Canada
in the War of 1812
The war ended in 1814, when both sides gave back any territory they had captured. The British paid for a costly defence system including the Citadels at Halifax and Quebec City, the naval drydock at Halifax, Fort Henry at Kingston, and the Rideau Canal between Kingston and Ottawa. Today these are important historic sites and popular tourist attractions. The present-day Canada-U.S. border is partly an outcome of the War of 1812, which ensured that Canada would remain independent of the United States.
Rebellions of 1837–38
In the 1830s, reformers in Upper and Lower Canada believed that progress toward full democracy was too slow. Some believed Canada should adopt American republican values or even try to join the United States. When armed rebellions occurred in 1837–38 in the area outside Montreal and in Toronto, the rebels did not have enough public support to succeed. They were defeated by British troops and Canadian volunteers. A number of rebels were hanged or exiled; some exiles later returned to Canada.
Lord Durham, an English reformer sent to report on the rebellions, recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be merged and given Responsible Government. This means that the ministers of the Crown must have the support of a majority of the elected representatives in order to govern. Controversially, Lord Durham also said that the quickest way for the Canadiens to achieve progress was to assimilate into English-speaking Protestant culture. This recommendation demonstrated a complete lack of understanding of French Canadians, who sought to uphold the distinct identity of French Canada.
Some reformers, including Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché and Sir George-Étienne Cartier, later became Fathers of Confederation, as did a former member of the voluntary government militia in Upper Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald.
(Picture)Sir Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine,
a champion of French language
rights, became the first head of
a responsible government
(similar to a prime minister)
in Canada in 1849
In 1840, Upper and Lower Canada were united as the Province of Canada. Reformers such as Sir Louis- Hippolyte La Fontaine and Robert Baldwin, in parallel to Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, worked with British governors toward responsible government.
The first British North American colony to attain full responsible government was Nova Scotia in 1847–48. In 1848–49 the governor of United Canada, Lord Elgin, with encouragement from London, introduced responsible government.
This is the system that we have today: if the government loses a confidence vote in the assembly it must resign. La Fontaine, a champion of democracy and French language rights, became the first leader of a responsible government in the Canadas.
(Picture)The Fathers of Confederation established
the Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867,
the birth of the country that we know today
From 1864 to 1867, representatives from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Province of Canada, with British support, established a new country called the Dominion of Canada. There would be two levels of government, federal and provincial. Each province would keep its own legislature and have control of such areas as education and health. The British Parliament passed the British North America Act in 1867, after three conferences of representatives of the colonies held in Charlottetown, Quebec City, and London.
(Picture)Dominion of Canada $1 bill, 1923, showing King George V,
who assigned Canada’s national colours (white and red)
in 1921, the colours of our national flag today
The birth of Canada, on July 1, 1867, is known as Confederation. The men who established Canada are called the Fathers of Confederation. Until 1982, July 1 was celebrated as “Dominion Day” to commemorate the day that Canada became a self-governing Dominion. Today it is officially known as Canada Day.
Dominion from Sea to Sea
Sir Leonard Tilley, an elected official and Father of Confederation from New Brunswick, suggested the term Dominion of Canada in 1864. He was inspired by Psalm 72 in the Bible which refers to “dominion from sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earth.” This phrase embodied the vision of building a powerful, united, wealthy, and free country that spanned a continent. The title was written into the Constitution, was used officially for about 100 years, and remains part of our heritage today.
Time Line of Provinces and Territories
1867 — Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
1870 — Manitoba, Northwest Territories (N.W.T.)
1871 — British Columbia
1873 — Prince Edward Island
1880 — Transfer of the Arctic Islands (to N.W.T.)
1898 — Yukon Territory
1905 — Alberta, Saskatchewan
1949 — Newfoundland and Labrador
1999 — Nunavut
Did you know? In the 1920s, some believed that the British West Indies (British territories in the Caribbean Sea) should become part of Canada. This did not occur, though Canada and Commonwealth Caribbean countries and territories enjoy close ties today.
(Picture)Sir John A. Macdonald,
the first Prime Minister of
the Dominion of Canada
Canada’s First Prime Minister
In 1867, Sir John Alexander Macdonald, a Father of Confederation, became Canada’s first Prime Minister. Born in Scotland on January 11, 1815, he came to Upper Canada as a child. He was a lawyer in Kingston, Ontario, a gifted politician, and a colourful personality. Parliament has recognized January 11 as Sir John A. Macdonald Day. His portrait is on the $10 bill.
Sir George-Étienne Cartier was the key architect of Confederation from Quebec. A railway lawyer, Montrealer, close ally of Macdonald, and patriotic Canadien, Cartier led Quebec into Confederation and helped negotiate the entry of the Northwest Territories, Manitoba, and British Columbia into Canada.
Challenge in the west
When Canada took over the vast northwest region from the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1869, the 12,000 Métis of the Red River were not consulted. In response, Louis Riel led an armed uprising and seized Fort Garry, the territorial capital. Canada’s future was in jeopardy. How could the Dominion reach from sea to sea if it could not control the interior?
(Picture)From left to right:
Sir Sam Steele: A great frontier hero,
Mounted Policeman, and
soldier of the Queen
Métis Resistance: Gabriel Dumont was
the Métis’ greatest military leader
Ottawa sent soldiers to retake Fort Garry in 1870. Riel fled to the United States, and Canada established a new province, Manitoba. Riel was elected to Parliament but never took his seat. Later, as Métis and Indian rights were again threatened by westward settlement, a second rebellion in 1885 in present-day Saskatchewan led to Riel’s trial and execution for high treason, a decision that was strongly opposed in Quebec. Riel is seen by many as a hero, a defender of Métis rights, and the father of Manitoba.
After the first Métis uprising, Prime Minister Macdonald established the North West Mounted Police (NWMP) in 1873 to pacify the West and assist in negotiations with the Indians. The NWMP founded Fort Calgary, Fort MacLeod, and other centres that today are cities and towns. Regina became its headquarters. Today, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or “the Mounties”) are the national police force and one of Canada’s best-known symbols. Some of Canada’s most colourful heroes, such as Major General Sir Sam Steele, came from the ranks of the Mounties.
(Picture)Members of the train crew pose with a westbound Pacific Express,
at the first crossing of the Illecillewaet River near Glacier, B.C., 1886
(Picture)Chinese workers’ camp
on the CPR, Kamloops, 1886
A Railway from Sea to Sea
British Columbia joined Canada in 1871 after Ottawa promised to build a railway to the West Coast. On November 7, 1885, a powerful symbol of unity was completed when Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona), the Scottish-born director of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), drove the last spike. The project was financed by British and American investors and built by both European and Chinese labour. Afterwards the Chinese were subject to discrimination including the Head Tax, a race-based entry fee; the Government of Canada apologized in 2006 for this discriminatory policy. After many years of heroic work, the CPR’s “ribbons of steel” fulfilled a national dream.
Canada’s economy grew and became more industrialized during the economic boom of the 1890s and early 1900s. One million British and one million Americans immigrated to Canada at this time.
Sir Wilfrid Laurier became the first French-Canadian prime minister since Confederation and encouraged immigration to the West. His portrait is on the $5 bill. The railway made it possible for immigrants, including 170,000 Ukrainians, 115,000 Poles, and tens of thousands from Germany, France, Norway, and Sweden to settle in the West before 1914 and develop a thriving agricultural sector.
(Picture)From left to right: Sergeant, Fort Garry Horse,
Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1916
Sir Arthur Currie, a reserve officer,
became Canada’s greatest soldier
The First World War
Most Canadians were proud to be part of the British Empire. Over 7,000 volunteered to fight in the South African War (1899-1902), popularly known as the Boer War, and over 260 died. In 1900, Canadians took part in the Battles of Paardeberg (“Horse Mountain”) and Lillefontein, victories that strengthened national pride in Canada.
When Germany attacked Belgium and France in 1914 and Britain declared war, Ottawa formed the Canadian Expeditionary Force (later the Canadian Corps). More than 600,000 Canadians served in the war, most of them volunteers, out of a total population of 8 million.
(Picture)From top to bottom:
Maple leaf cap badge
from the First World War.
Canada’s soldiers began
using the maple leaf in
The Vimy Memorial in
France honours those
who served and died in
the Battle of Vimy Ridge
on April 9, 1917, the first
British victory of the
First World War
On the battlefield, the Canadians proved to be tough, innovative soldiers. Canada shared in the tragedy and triumph of the Western Front. The Canadian Corps captured Vimy Ridge in April 1917, with 10,000 killed or wounded, securing the Canadians’ reputation for valour as the “shock troops of the British Empire.” One Canadian officer said: “It was Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific on parade…. In those few minutes I witnessed the birth of a nation.” April 9 is celebrated as Vimy Day.
Regrettably, from 1914 to 1920, Ottawa interned over 8,000 former Austro-Hungarian subjects, mainly Ukrainian men, as “enemy aliens” in 24 labour camps across Canada, even though Britain advised against the policy.
In 1918, under the command of General Sir Arthur Currie, Canada’s greatest soldier, the Canadian Corps advanced alongside the French and British Empire troops in the last Hundred Days. These included the victorious Battle of Amiens on August 8, 1918 – which the Germans called “the black day of the German Army” – followed by Arras, Canal du Nord, Cambrai, and Mons. With Germany and Austria’s surrender, the war ended in the Armistice on November 11, 1918. In total 60,000 Canadians were killed and 170,000 wounded. The war strengthened both national and imperial pride, particularly in English Canada.
Women get the vote
(Picture)More than 3,000 nurses,
served in the Royal
Canadian Army Medical
Corps, 2,500 of them
At the time of Confederation, the vote was limited to property-owning adult white males. This was common in most democratic countries at the time. The effort by women to achieve the right to vote is known as the women’s suffrage movement. Its founder in Canada was Dr. Emily Stowe, the first Canadian woman to practise medicine in Canada. In 1916, Manitoba became the first province to grant voting rights to women.
In 1917, thanks to the leadership of women such as Dr. Stowe and other suffragettes, the federal government of Sir Robert Borden gave women the right to vote in federal elections — first to nurses at the battle front, then to women who were related to men in active wartime service. In 1918, most Canadian female citizens over 21 were granted the right to vote in federal elections. Due to the work of Thérèse Casgrain and others, Quebec granted women the vote in 1940.
(Picture)From left to right: Canadian soldiers observe Remembrance Day
Remembrance Day poppy
Canadian war veteran
Canadians remember the sacrifices of our veterans and brave fallen in all wars up to the present day in which Canadians took part, each year on November 11: Remembrance Day. Canadians wear the red poppy and observe a moment of silence at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month to honour the sacrifices of over a million brave men and women who have served, and the 110,000 who have given their lives. Canadian medical officer Lt. Col. John McCrae composed the poem “In Flanders Fields” in 1915; it is often recited on Remembrance Day:
(Picture)Scouts with Remembrance
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved, and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
Between the wars
(Picture)Phil Edwards was a Canadian
track and field champion.
Born in British Guiana, he
won bronze medals for
Canada in the 1928, 1932,
and 1936 Olympics, then
graduated from McGill
University Medical School.
He served as a captain in the
Canadian Army during the
Second World War, and, as a
Montreal doctor, became an
expert in tropical diseases
After the First World War, the British Empire evolved into a free association of states known as the British Commonwealth of Nations. Canada remains a leading member of the Commonwealth to this day, together with other successor states of the Empire such as India, Australia, New Zealand, and several African and Caribbean countries.
The “Roaring Twenties” were boom times, with prosperity for businesses and low unemployment. The stock market crash of 1929, however, led to the Great Depression or “Dirty Thirties.” Unemployment reached 27% in 1933 and many businesses were wiped out. Farmers in Western Canada were hit hardest by low grain prices and a terrible drought.
There was growing demand for the government to create a social safety net with minimum wages, a standard work week, and programs such as unemployment insurance. The Bank of Canada, a central bank to manage the money supply and bring stability to the financial system, was created in 1934. Immigration dropped and many refugees were turned away, including Jews trying to flee Nazi Germany in 1939.
(Picture)In the Second World War, the Canadians captured Juno Beach as part of
the Allied invasion of Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944
The D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944
In order to defeat Nazism and Fascism, the Allies invaded Nazi-occupied Europe. Canadians took part in the liberation of Italy in 1943–1944. In the epic invasion of Normandy in northern France on June 6, 1944, known as D-Day, 15,000 Canadian troops stormed and captured Juno Beach from the German Army, a great national achievement shown in this painting by Orville Fisher. Approximately one in ten Allied soldiers on D-Day was Canadian. The Canadian Army liberated the Netherlands in 1944–45 and helped force the German surrender of May 8, 1945, bringing to an end six years of war in Europe.
The Second World War
The Second World War began in 1939 when Adolf Hitler, the National Socialist (Nazi) dictator of Germany, invaded Poland and conquered much of Europe. Canada joined with its democratic allies in the fight to defeat tyranny by force of arms.
More than one million Canadians and Newfoundlanders (Newfoundland was a separate British entity) served in the Second World War, out of a population of 11.5 million. This was a high proportion, and of these 44,000 were killed. The Canadians suffered losses in the unsuccessful defence of Hong Kong (1941) from attack by Imperial Japan, and in a failed raid on Nazi-controlled Dieppe on the coast of France (1942).
The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) took part in the Battle of Britain and provided a high proportion of Commonwealth aircrew in bombers and fighter planes over Europe. Moreover, Canada contributed more to the Allied air effort than any other Commonwealth country, with over 130,000 Allied air crew trained in Canada under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.
The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) saw its finest hour in the Battle of the Atlantic, protecting convoys of merchant ships against German submarines. Canada’s Merchant Navy helped to feed, clothe, and resupply Britain. At the end of the Second World War, Canada had the third-largest navy in the world.
In the Pacific war, Japan invaded the Aleutian Islands, attacked a lighthouse on Vancouver Island, launched fire balloons over B.C. and the Prairies, and grossly maltreated Canadian prisoners of war captured at Hong Kong. Regrettably, the state of war and public opinion in B.C. led to the relocation of West Coast Japanese Canadians by the Canadian government, and the forcible sale of their property. This occurred even though some local officials and the RCMP told Ottawa that they posed little danger to Canada. The Government of Canada apologized in 1988 for wartime wrongs inflicted on Japanese Canadians. Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945 — the end of four years of war in the Pacific.
 مسکون ،مشغول ،دست به کار
 محصول، چيدن
 The Huron-Wendat Nation is a Huron-Wendat First Nation
 chain of five large lakes (Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) in North America
 North American Indian tribe
 a member of any of the Athabascan-speaking peoples
 a member of a culture in which food is obtained by hunting, fishing, and foraging
 member of one of the Iroquois tribes
 group of North American Indian peoples
 چادر نشين
 گاوميش کوهان دار امريکايى
 رمه ،گله
 قطبى ،شمالى
 حيات وحش
 کنسروميوه ،نگاهداشتن ،حفظ کردن ،باقى نگهداشتن
 رقابت كردن با
 مبلغ مذهبى
 مستعمره نشين ،مهاجر
 کار گذاشتن ،نصب کردن
 تشكيل مستعمره دادن، مهاجرت كردن
 ساحل ،کرانه
 سفر دريا
 اسير شده ،تصرف شده
 of the group of American Indian peoples
 state in the northeastern United States
 سنگر،قلعه نظامى ،دژ
 ستيز كوشش كردن
 ،درشت ،خشن
 متفق ،هم پيمان
 member of the Algonquin Indian tribe
 two Native American peoples from northeastern America
 اتحاد،هم پيمانى
 رزم، پيكار
 باهم كار كردن
 رانده شده ،رانده
 درخواست کردن ،نياز،
 سگ ابى
 پوست پشم دار
 واگذار کردن ،سپردن
 پاسخ دادن
 توپ ، بتوپ بستن،
 برد،فتح و ظفر
 شكست دادن
 هجوم ،تهاجم ،تعرض
 وفادار نسبت بتاج وتخت
 نبرد،تلاش کردن
 اقليم ،قاره
 اهداء، اجازه واگذاري رسمي
 منطقه اى که اب دريا يا رود را پخش و تقسيم ميکند
 زهكش، ابگذر
 رقابت كردن با
 قايق باريک وبدون بادبان وسکان
 کرانه دريا
 شكست دادن
 پهن، مسطح، ميدان يا محوطه جنگ
 عده ها،يکانها،افراد
 کوشيدن ، نزاع کردن strive
 وابسته به کليساى کاتوليک روم
 قانونى ،مطابق قانون اساسى
 فرار کرده
 ظلم ،فشار،
 وابسته به کليساى مشايخى پروتستان
 وابسته بکليساى انگليس
 نام فرقه اى از مسيحيان
 فرقه مسيحى
 عضو فرقه کويکر
 slave who has been given his freedom
 بحث، مذاكرات پارلماني
 معرف ،نماينده
 اهداء، اجازه واگذاري رسمي
 branch of the lawmaking body
 از ان وقت تاکنون
 ستوان ،ناوبان ،نايب ،وکيل
 حکمران ،فرمانده
 منسوخ کردن
 پرحرف ،رک و راست
 طرفدار عمل
 اختصاص دادن، وقف كردن،
 اعتدال ،طرفدارى از منع نوشابه هاى الکلى
 انطرف اقيانوس اطلس
 از طريق ،بوسيله
 secret system of escape routes used by slaves to reach the free states in the North
 چيره شدن ،حکمفرما بودن
 بورس سهام
 کنده ،درخت الوارى
 فرقت ،کشتى بادبان دار
 اسير شده ،تصرف شده
 United States Senate ,
 لنگرگاه ،بندرگاه
 وابسته به نيروى دريايى
 شكست دادن،مغلوب ساختن
 تجاوز ،هجوم
 شکست دادن ، مغلوب ساختن
 دسته کشتيهاى جنگى ،ناوگان
 navy of the United Kingdom
 منزجر شدن از ، خشمگين شدن از
 فتح کردن ،تسخير کردن
 به اب انداختن كشتي، شروع كردن
 استيلاء،تاراج ،تجاوز
 Shawnee Indian chief
 متجاوز، حمله کننده
 تقاص ،قصاص ،انتقامجويى ،تلافى کردن
 اردوکشى ،هيئت اعزامى
 پس ازان
 بخاک سپرد
 پدافند،دفاع کردن ،استحکامات
 قلعه نظامي، سنگر
 place in a dry dock
 عاقبت ،حاصل ،نتيجه
 طغيان، سركشي
 ياغي، شورشي، طغيان گر
 کامياب شدن ،موفق شدن
 شكست دادن
 اويزان كردن، بدار اويختن،
 اعلام مسير تعقيب
 معرف ،نماينده
 ازراه مباحثه
 يکسان کردن ،سازش کردن ،وفق دادن ،
 seek , جوييدن ،طلبيدن ،پوييدن
 حمايت کردن از،تقويت کردن ،تاييد کردن
 مشخص ،مجزا،جدا،واضح
 هويت ،شخصيت ،اصليت ،شناسايى
 اتفاق ،اتحاد، معاهده
 نيروى مقاومت ،مليشيا
 پهلوان ،قهرمان
 همسو،نظير ،متوازى
 دست يافتن ،نائل شدن
 اطمينان ،اعتماد
 مجمع ،مجلس ،گروه ،هيئت قانون گذارى
 تسليم ،مستعفى شدن ،دست کشيدن
 اتفاق ،اتحاد، معاهده
 سلطنت ،حکومت
 وکيل ،نماينده
 قانونگذار ،مجلس ،قوه مقننه
 تعيين كردن، مقرر داشتن
 مجلس ياداورى ،جشن گرفتن
 الهام شده ،ملهم
 سرود روحانى
 مجسم کردن
 پديد آمده ، گسترش يافته
 بهرحال ،باوجود ان
 کشورهاى مشترک المنافع
 town in Nova Scotia
 سرامد ،شخص با استعداد
 متحد کردن ،هم پيمان
 گفتگو کردن ،مذاکره کردن
 تحويل گرفتن
 پهناور،وسيع ،بزرگ
 همفكري كردن ، مشورت
 شورش ،طغيان
 بتصرف اوردن
 مخاطره ، مسئله بغرنج
 take back, take again
 فرار کرده , flee
 صندلى ، مسند، مرکز،مقر
 تهديد كردن
 بدار زدن
 به صلح وادار کردن ،ارام کردن ،
 گفتگو ها،مذاکره
 مرکز فرماندهى ،اداره کل
 صفوف يکان ، رديف
 کارکنان کشتى ، کارکنان هواپيما وامثال ان
 حالت ،ژست
 مسافر مغرب
 صلح جو،(باحرف بزرگ)اقيانوس ساکن
 نقطه تقاطع ،عبور
 اتحاد، ،واحد
 ميله ،ميخ بزرگ
 روبان ،تسمه
 انجام دادن ،واقعيت دادن
 شکوفائى ،جهش ،غرش
 اتفاق ،اتحاد،هم پيمانى ،هم عهدى ،معاهده
 پيشرفت كردن
 بخش کشاورزى
 نيروى توسعه طلب و سرکوبگر
 مدال ،نشان
 بادوام ،سخت
 پيروزى ،جشن فيروزى
 شجاعت ،دلاورى
 گواهي، شاهد
 بطور مايه تاسف
 در کنار در طول
 پس گرفتن و تبديل کردن ،واگذار کردن ، رهاکردن ،تسليم شدن ،تحويل دادن
 مرغ نغمه سرا
 حق راى وشرکت در انتخابات
 قرباني، فداكاري
 احترام کردن به ،عزت دادن به
 region in northwestern Europe
 با صدايي موزون خواندن
 رديف ،صف
 چكاوكوگونه هاي مشابه ان
 کمياب ،کم ،نادر
 درميان ،وسط
 سرخ شدن ،گداختن
 مرافعه ،دعوا ،نزاع کردن
 دشمن ،حريف
 قصور،ضعف ،نقص
 پاس پرتاب ،ويران کردن
 شکل قديمى کلمهThe ،شماها
 دو و ميدانى ،ديسک و غيره
 کشورهاى مشترک المنافع
 جانشين ،خلف ،اخلاف ،مابعد،قائم مقام
 غرش کننده
 شکوفائى ،جهش ،غرش
 درخواست کردن ،نياز ،تقاضا کردن
 يهودي، كليمي
 متفق ،هم پيمان ،متحد
 استيلاء،تاراج ،تجاوز،تک ،تعرض
 تاراج ،تجاوز،تک يورش
 حملهكردن بر، تجاوز كردن
 اشغال شده ،مسکون
 كولاك،باحمله گرفتن، يورش اوردن
 پس گرفتن و تبديل کردن ،صرفنظر کردن ،واگذار کردن ،سپردن ،رهاکردن ،تسليم شدن
 تاخت و تاز كردن در ، تجاوز كردن
 مغلوب ،فتح شده
 حکومت ستمگرانه
 موجوديت مستقل ،نهاد،وجود
 نسبت ،سهم
 تک هوايى ،تاخت و تاز،حمله ناگهانى
 کارمندان و خلبانان هواپيما
 ،کارکنان هواپيما وامثال ان
 جريمه، كوچك كردن، صاف شدن، رقيق شدن، فاخر، عالي، لطيف، شگرف
 حراست كردن
 قافله، كاروان
 برج فانوس دريايى
 بطور درشت يا برجسته
 abused, mistreated, subject to improper treatment
 زندانى ،اسير
 بطور مايه تاسف
 قوى ،موثر،شديد
 ژست گرفتن ،وانمود شدن
 واگذار كردن، سپردن، رهاكردن، تسليم شدن، تحويلدادن، تسليم، واگذاري، صرفنظر