Positive HIV tests and AIDS diagnoses in Canada

 HIV attack

Compilation : Dr. A. H. Serdar

I. What Does “AIDS” Mean?

II. Sexual Risk Behaviors of Canadians

III. Canada Statistics by Year and Age

I. What Does “AIDS” Mean?

AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome:

* Acquired means you can get infected with it.
Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases.
Syndrome means a group of health problems that make up a disease.
AIDS is caused by a virus called
HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If you get infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection. It will make “antibodies” — special molecules to fight HIV.

A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies. If you have them in your blood, it means that you have HIV infection. People who have the HIV antibodies are called “HIV-Positive.
Being HIV-positive, or having HIV disease, is not the same as having AIDS. Many people are
HIV-positive but don’t get sick for many years. As HIV disease continues, it slowly wears down the immune system. Viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria that usually don’t cause any problems can make you very sick if your immune system is damaged. These are called “opportunistic infections.

How does one get HIV and AIDS?

HIV is passed from person to person through body fluids such as

* Blood

* Semen

* Vaginal fluid

* Breast milk

Methods of infection include:

* Sexual contact

* Unwashed sexual devices

* Contaminated needles

* Mother to child

* Blood products or transfusions

HIV infection is NOT passed by:

* Casual contact, such as shaking hands

* Hugging, or kissing

* Being coughed or sneezed on

* Sweat or tears

* Swimming pools

* Toilet seats or telephones

* Sharing bed linens, towels, eating utensils, or food

* Insect or animal bites

 What are the symptoms of HIV and AIDS?

In most cases, symptoms similar to the flu— including swollen lymph glands in the neck and groin, fever, headache, aching muscles, and fatigue—often develop about two to eight weeks after being infected with HIV, and generally last two to three weeks.

The next stage, asymptomatic infection, is a symptom-free period that may last up to 10 years or more. Some people, however, progress to the symptomatic HIV infection stage within a few months.

The following symptoms may appear:

* Skin rashes

* Diarrhea

* Unintentional weight loss

* Short-term memory loss

* Swollen and/or bleeding gums

* Fungal infection in the mouth and/or throat

* In women, persistent and severe vaginal yeast infections

* Sores on the genitals and/or mouth caused by herpes

Treating HIV and AIDS

Treatment for HIV/AIDS has come a long way in the past 20 years. Anti-HIV medications reduce the levels of HIV in the blood. This helps the immune system to partially repair itself. As a result, many people with HIV/AIDS in Canada are living longer, healthier lives. However, it is important to know that anti-HIV medications are not a cure for HIV/AIDS.

How can one avoid getting HIV and AIDS

There is no vaccine to prevent HIV infection. Therefore, the best prevention is to reduce the risk of infection:

* Not participating in unprotected sex unless one is absolutely certain that their partner is HIV-negative.

* Using a new latex condom

* Use clean needles

* Be careful when traveling. Not all countries screen blood and blood products for HIV.

* Talk to your doctor if you are HIV-positive and pregnant.

* Do not breast-feed if you are HIV-positive.

 Living with HIV and AIDS

The following healthy lifestyle tips will help to ensure quality of life for as long as is possible:

* See your doctor regularly.

* Take medication as prescribed.

* Get flu and pneumonia vaccines.

* Keep your hands clean.

* Do not smoke or take illegal drugs.

* Eat a healthy diet.

* Get plenty of rest.

* Exercise regularly.


II. Sexual Risk Behaviors of Canadians

Unprotected sexual intercourse is one of the main modes of HIV transmission in Canada. Therefore, it is important to understand sexual behavior at the population level to assess the potential for the spread of HIV and to help target and evaluate prevention programs.

* A recent Canadian survey indicated that among adults aged 20 to 45 years, 8.4% of men and 6% of women reported having two or more sexual partners within the previous year.

* In a survey, of those who reported sexual intercourse with a non-regular partner in the year prior to being interviewed, only 26% of men and 19% of women indicated that they always used condoms with non-regular partners.

* In a school-based survey conducted in Nova Scotia, approximately 61% of grade 12 students (ages 17 to 18 years) reported having sexual intercourse in the year prior to the survey. Of those grade 12 students who were sexually active, only 32% always used condoms, and 40% indicated that they had had two or more partners in the past year.

* A survey in western Canada found that 55% of 17 year-old boys and 52% of 17 year-old girls had had sexual intercourse. Of these, 33% of boys and 30% of girls had had four or more partners. Of those who were sexually active, only 57% of boys and 45% of girls in this age group used a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse.

* In a survey, girls aged 15 to 19 years had the highest rate of reported chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Canada.

* Among MSM (Men who have sex with men), a national survey showed that 15% of respondents had engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past year.

* In a study of bisexual males in Ontario, 50.9% of all respondents reported at least one episode of unprotected sex with a regular female partner, and 9.9% reported at least one episode with a casual female partner in the year prior to the study. Further, 12.7% of respondents reported having unprotected sex with a regular male partner on at least one occasion, and 7.6% admitted to at least one episode of unprotected sex with a casual male partner in the 12 months before being interviewed.

* In a Vancouver study of IDUs(injection drug users), 60% to 80% of respondents did not always use a condom in the past six months when having sexual intercourse with opposite-sex regular partners.

* Recent studies of street youth indicate that 85% to 98% have had sexual intercourse, with over 60% having had their first sexual intercourse before the age of 13. In addition, 52% to 78%of street youth have had six or more lifetime sexual partners, and many report inconsistent condom use.


III. Canada Statistics by Year and Age

Positive HIV tests and AIDS diagnoses by year

Year AIDS diagnoses Positive HIV test reports
Adult male Adult female Total, all ages Adult male Adult female Total, all ages
Until end 1996 14,840 1,117 16,145 30,113 3,852 38,649
1997 604 104 723 1,862 480 2,477
1998 541 100 645 1,696 471 2,304
1999 459 87 555 1,593 512 2,194
2000 436 57 498 1,542 487 2,112
2001 344 71 418 1,614 540 2,226
2002 340 61 404 1,809 621 2,491
2003 301 77 381 1,824 626 2,493
2004 252 60 315 1,829 656 2,542
2005 252 71 329 1,831 626 2,515
2006 191 61 255 1,810 698 2,558
Total 18,560 1,866 20,669 47,523 9,569 62,561

Trends in HIV diagnoses

The annual number of reported positive HIV test results increased between 2000 and 2004, following a steady decline since 1995. This rise may be partly due to changes in immigration policies that were introduced in 2002. HIV tests are now part of the routine assessment for immigrants and most provinces and territories include these results in their reports.

Women have accounted for around a quarter of adult HIV diagnoses reported with known gender in each year since 2000.  

Trends in AIDS diagnoses

Since the beginning of the epidemic in the early 1980s, there have been 20,669 AIDS diagnoses reported to CIDPC (Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control). The number of annual diagnoses peaked at 1,827 in 1993 and has since declined to fewer than 400. A major factor in the initial, dramatic decrease in cases was the delayed or prevented onset of AIDS due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

AIDS cases by ethnic status and year of diagnosis

Ethnic status 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total
Aboriginal 22 38 38 34 23 22 605
South Asian/
West Asian/Arab
9 8 10 4 5 1 170
Asian 12 11 13 9 6 2 276
Black 54 50 44 37 16 10 1,537
Latin American 10 11 8 1 4 6 273
White 231 193 158 129 90 48 13,377
Other 4 5 3 4 1 1 111
Not reported 76 88 107 97 184 165 4,320
Total 418 404 381 315 329 255 20,669

The proportion of AIDS cases with known ethnicity reported among white people declined from 91% in 1988 to 62% in 2005. Over the same period, there were steep increases in the proportions attributed to aboriginal and black people. These two groups are now highly overrepresented.

In the 2001 census, aboriginal and black people accounted for 3.3% and 2.2% of Canada’s population respectively. In the same year, these groups respectively reported 6.4% and 15.2% of AIDS cases with known ethnicity. In 2005, these proportions were 15.9% for aboriginal people and 11.0% for black people. However it should be noted that in many cases ethnicity is not reported.

Positive HIV tests and AIDS diagnoses by age group, until end of 2006

Age group AIDS diagnoses Positive HIV test reports
Male Female Total Male Female Total
Under 15 123 114 237 332 230 577
15-19 56 16 72 438 361 868
20-24 497 128 625 10,742 3,152 14,911
25-29 2,249 327 2,576
30-34 4,024 430 4,455 18,724 3,528 23,589
35-39 4,110 324 4,436
40-44 3,246 254 3,500 10,550 1,525 12,696
45-49 2,099 142 2,241
50-54 1,094 68 1,162 4,346 676 5,275
55-59 616 73 690
60 or older 569 104 673
Total 18,685 1,980 20,669 49,864 9,976 62,561


1.        Houston S. HIV Risk Behaviours Among Canadians: An Inventory and Synthesis. Division of HIV Epidemiology, LCDC, Health Canada, 1998.

2.        Division of HIV Epidemiology, LCDC, Health Canada (unpublished data from Canada Health Monitor, January 1997), and Houston, S, Archibald, CP, Adrien A, Blanchard J, Fisher, W, Maticka-Tyndale E, Warren, W, Sutherland, D. Development of a standardized set of questions to assess levels of HIV-risk behaviour among the general population. 6th Annual Canadian Conf on HIV/AIDS Research, Ottawa, May 1997; Can J Inf Dis 1997; 8 (Suppl A):37A, #256.

3.        National Population Health Survey 1994-1995, Statistics Canada (unpublished data).

4.        Strike C, Archibald C, Browne J, Sutherland D. Patterns of condom use among Canadians with multiple sex partners. Fifth Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, Winnipeg, June, 1995 (Abstract 348).

5.        Poulin C. Nova Scotia Student Drug Use 1996: Technical Report. Drug Dependency Services Division, Nova Scotia Department of Health and Dalhousie University, 1996.

6.        King A, Beazley R, Warren W, Hankins C, Robertson A, Radford J (1988). Canada Youth and AIDS Study. Social Program Evaluation Group, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario.

7.        McCreary Centre Society (1993). Adolescent Health Survey: Province of British Columbia. Prepared by Larry Peters and Aileen Murphy. Investigators: Roger Tonkin, David Cox, and Ruth Milner. Vancouver, BC.

8.        Yan P, Huntley J, Sutherland D. Estimation of the historical age-specific HIV incidence in Canada. XI International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, July 1996 (Abstract Tu.C.573).

9.        Health Canada. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Canada: 1996 Surveillance Report. Division of Sexual Health Promotion and STD Prevention and Control, LCDC, HPB, Health Canada, 1996.

10.     Myers T, Godin G, Calzavara L, Lambert J, Locker D, and the Canadian AIDS Society. (1993). The Canadian survey of gay and bisexual men and HIV infection: men’s survey.

11.     Strathdee S, Martindale S, Hogg R, Cornelisse O, Miller M, Devlin B et al. HIV prevalence, incidence and risk behaviours among a cohort of young gay/bisexual men. 6th Annual Canadian Conf on HIV/AIDS Research, Ottawa, May 1997; Can J Inf Dis 1997; 8 (Suppl A):24A, #204.

12.     Sexual and testing behaviour of bisexual men in Ontario. Myers T, Allan D, Strike C, Calzavara L, Major C, Bullock S, Millson P, Graydon M, LeBlanc M. Proceedings, 6th Annual HIV Epidemiology Meeting. Division of HIV Epidemiology, LCDC, Health Canada. Quebec City, November 20-22, 1997 and Myers T (personal communication, April 1998).

13.     Patrick DM, Strathdee SA, Archibald CP, et al. Determinants of HIV seroconversion in injection drug users during a period of rising prevalence in Vancouver. Int J STD AIDS, 1997; 8:427-435.

14.     Parent R, Alary M, Hankins C, Noel L, Blanchette C, Claessens C et al. HIV among IDUs: Second surveillance year of the SurvIDU network. 6th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, Ottawa, May 1997; Can J Inf Dis 1997; 8 (Suppl A): 27A, #220 and Parent, R (personal communication, April 1998).

15.     Frappier J-Y, Roy E. HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviours study among adolescents with maladaptive and social problems in Montreal. Final report prepared for NHRDP, July 1995

16.     McCreary Centre Society (1994). Adolescent Health Survey: Street youth in Vancouver. Prepared by Larry Peters and Aileen Murphy. Principal investigator: Roger Tonkin. Burnaby, BC.

17.     http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/epiu-aepi/hiv-vih/epi0599/sexbe-eng.php

18.     http://www.avert.org/canstatr.htm

19.     http://www.shoppersdrugmart.ca

20.     http://www.thebody.com/content/art6128.html#mean



Posted on اوت 8, 2009, in English, کل مطالب. Bookmark the permalink. 15 دیدگاه.

  1. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : با سلام من دختری 22 ساله ای هستم که به دلیل ریزش مو وکم موئی مدت 2 ماه است که به تجویز پزشک از محلول xandrox استفاده میکنم الان مدتی است که در ناحیه دور چشمم موهای ریزی مشاهده میشود نمیدانم که این مسئله عارضه استفاده از xandrox است یا کرم دور چشمی که مدتی است شروع به استفاده از ان کرده ام یا این که دلیل دیگری دارد؟ لطفا مرا راهنمائی کنید . برای رفع این مشکل یاید چه کنم؟ و اگر این مسئله به خاطر استفاده xandrox است ایا باید مصرف قطع شود؟

    دکتر : به احتمال زیاد این مسئله به خاطر استفاده xandrox است و باید مصرف آن قطع شود.

    • Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار

      به اطلاع کاربران گرامی میرساند : نظرات از جانب من در کامنتها تنها با عنوان Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار اعتبار دارند .

  2. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    hi..just typed in english to make easier to read it for u…i need some lectures and information about abnormal pacemaker in heart…can u help me ??becoz ma major is not medicini,,i will be so gratefull if u help me ..thanks!!!!!!
    Complications associated with the implantation procedure are uncommon, but include bleeding, infection, or a collapsed lung. Each of these problems can generally be treated quite effectively.

    Pacemaker problems can rarely occur long after the implantation procedure. These “late” complications include generator failure (extremely rare), and lead failure (less rare). Lead failure can occur if the pacemaker is traumatized somehow, such as from the wear and tear of movement. (The most common cause of such trauma is the habit some people have of “twiddling” with their pacemaker.) Manufacturers are required to report device failures to the FDA. which will order companies to issue either “advisories” or recalls if a particular model seems prone to failure
    Following the suggested maintenance schedule usually means that pacemaker problems will be detected before they become serious. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the symptoms of bradycardia, symptoms that might indicate a pacemaker malfunction. Once again, these symptoms include weakness, easy fatigability, lightheadedness, dizziness, or loss of consciousness. Patients experiencing any of these symptoms should notify their doctor. A simple telephone check of the pacemaker is usually enough to rule out a pacemaker problem

  3. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : با سلام بنده خانمي 32 ساله هستم. بين دو ابرو يم يك خط كوچك اخم دارم و و دو طرف صورتم هم جاي خنده ايجاد شده كه عميق نيست . لطفا مرا راهنمايي كنيد كه آيا با روش میکرورم ابریشن مي توان اين مشكلات را رفع نمود ؟

    دکتر : دوست گرامی سلام اخم بین دو ابرو بدلیل انقباض عضلات این ناحیه است.به همین دلیل با دارو یا کرم برطرف نمیشود.بهترین راه برای درمان آن تزریق سم بوتولینوم(BOTOX,DYSPORT) است. اگر اخم بین دو ابرو عمیق نباشد با تزریق ژل یا انجام میکرودرم ابریژن هم بر طرف میشود.برای جاي خنده باید معاینه شوید.با میکرودرم یا تزریق ژل قابل درمان است.

  4. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : درمان گیاهی برای بهبود زخم بواسیر

    دکتر : با سلام درمان موثر و ثابت شده اي مطرح نشده است بجز مواردي كه باعث نرم شدن مدفوع مشوند مثل خاكشير/اسفرزه/انجير آب انداخته شده و….

  5. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : من دركودكي عمل فتق چپ انجام دادم.اكنون فتق راست را بايد عمل كنم.مشكل اين است كه بيضه راست من تغيير در نحوه ي قرار گيري پيدا كرده است.البته قبل از اين هم بود اما حالا شدت يافته است.آيا به خاطر داشتن فتق است؟

    دکتر : بلی با عمل فتق بهتر می شوید

  6. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : با سلام …لطفا بفرمایید کدام یک از مواد غذائی حاوی فسفر بالاییاست وکارایی مغز را هنگام درس خواندن بالا میبرد…. با تشکر

    دکتر : سلام،به طور كلي منابع خوب پروتئين ،منابع خوب فسفر هم هستند.منابع غني از فسفر عبارتند از شير و محصولات لبني،مغزها،حبوبات و غلات.كمبود فسفر نادر است وبعيد است كه شخصي از طريق كمبود دريافت غذايي فسفر دچار كمبود آن شودمگر در اثر يك سري بيماريهاي خاص يا مصرف داروهاي خاص.

  7. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : سلام. من دختری 23 ساله هستم.حدود سه سال هست که در ناحیه زانو و آرنج و دالان گوشم دچار عارضه پسیوریازیس شده ام.تا حالا پیش چند تا متخصص رفتم و داروهای دایونکس و psoriane و omega3 و …..استفاده کردم.البته اینها فقط ظاهری قضیه رو مخفی می کنه اما کمکی به بهبود نمی کنه.عارضه های روی آرنج و زانوم کمتر از یک سکه هستند اما گوشم خیلی اذیتم می کنه و سر این پماد زدن خیلی درگیرم باهاش. من چیزایی در مورد اشعه درمانی uv خوندم. می خواستم بدونم برای این مقدار این کارو می کنن؟ من خیلی نگرانم که به جاهای دیگر بدنم هم برسه…شما پیشنهاد می کنید من چه درمانی رو انجام بدم؟ راستش از بس پماد زدم به گوشم و انقدر دچار عفونت و کنجکاوی دیگران شده خسته شدم.صبح ها هم که بیدار می شم معمولاً گوشم مرطوبه ..به قدری که باید با گوش پاک کن خشکش کنم….ممنون

    دکتر : دوست گرامی پسوریازیس بیماری قابل درمان نیست قابل کنترل است.پس مداومت در درمان مهمترین درمان است.

  8. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : سلام.من 23 سال دارم وبرای از بین بردن ترکهای بدنم که به دلیل چاق یا لاغرشدن به وجود میان از کرمهای زیادی استفاده کردم ولی فایده ای نداشت .دستگاه یا وسیله پزشکی وجود داره که کاملا این ترکها از بین برن؟متشکرم

    دکتر : سلام.برای از بین بردن ترکهای بدن که به دلیل چاق یا لاغرشدن به وجود می آیند لیزر مفید است ولی اینکه کاملا این ترکها از بین بروند بستگی به پاسخ پوست شما دارد.

  9. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : خارج شدن باد از شکم به دفعات زیاد نشانه چه بیماری می باشد وروش درمان آن چیست؟

    دکتر : با سلام ابتدا دو آزمايش خون به نامهاي زير را انجام دهيد و براي مراحل بعدي ايميل بزنيد. Anti Gliadin Antibody Anti Endomysial Antibody

  10. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : مادر من دیابتی است و لای انگشتان دست و پایش اول قرمز و سپس تاول زده است و تاول آن ترکیده است علت را بیان کنید و راههای درمان را بگویید .

    دکتر : با سلام افزایش قند خون باعث آسیب آعصاب پا می گردد.این آسیب سبب می گردد بیمار درد ناشی از کفش ، فرو رفتن اجسام خارجی به پا ، گرما ، سرما و …را متوجه نشوند و لذا دچار قرمزی ، تاول و نهایتاً زخم گردد. لذا توصیه می گردد، قند خون را با جدیت کنترل کنید تا بیش از این اعصاب پا آزرده نشوند.با انتخاب کفش مناسب فشار وارد به پا را کم کنید تا دیگر دچار قرمزی و تاول نشود.هر روز پا را از نظر قرمزی ، تاول وزخم مورد بررسی قرار دهید و زخم وتاول ها را با آب و صابون شسشو دهید.

  11. پرسش پاسخ کوتاه

    سوال : من 19 سال دارم و موهای صورت و بدنم زیاد و تیره شده اند و هرمون مردانه نیز نمی باشد آیا با دارو خوب میشود یا با لیزر درمان می شود طوری که جایش نماند.

    دکتر : پرمویی در خانمها میتواند بدلیل تغییرات هورمونی باشد که اغلب همراه بی نظمی قاعدگی است یا میتواند بدون علت باشد.در مورد اول باید بیمار بررسی شود و علت بیماری برطرف گردد.در موارد بی علت لیزر مفید است.با انتخاب درست نوع لیزر شانس تیرگی بعد از لیزر بسیار کم میشود.

  12. از مهاجرتتان به ورد پرس خیلی خوشحا شدم
    امیدوارم کارها خوب پیش بره…ممنون که مقل همیشه زیبا می نویسید

  13. good article it even great when it come with statistics!

  14. سلام دكتر. ميخواستم بدونم امكان درمان جاي جوش هايي كه به صورت برجستگي درومده با ليزر وجود داره يا نه؟

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