اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم خونسازی (Q , R , S)
· Quantitative= مقدارى ،کمى.
· Rachitis= rickets; childhood disease characterized by softening of the bones.
· Radical prostatectomy= an operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it.
· Radical= بنيادى ، سياستمدار افراطى.
· Radiopacity= quality of not allowing radiation to pass through, پرتوماتي.
· Radiopaque= not allowing radiation to pass through.
· Rag= زبر، خشن، ناصاف.
· Ramus= شاخك; armlike bar of bone. (Helps to form joints).
· Rat= موش صحرايى.
· RBC= red blood cell; essentially bags of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying molecule. Hemoglobin binds oxygen to iron atoms, which give the hemoglobin and thus the cells their distinctive (متمايز) red color.
· Rear= عقب, پشت.
· Receding= عقب کشيدن ،،دور شدن ،بعقب سرازيرشدن.
· Recumbent= lying down; in a position of comfort or rest; برپشت خمشدن يا خوابيدن.
· Recurrent= عود کننده ،بازگشت کننده.
· Redirect= direct again; change the direction of.
· Reduction= تخفيف، کاهش ،احياء.
· Reflux= پس ريز،جريان برگشت.
· Reimplantation= replacement of tissue or a structure in the site from which it was previously lost or removed.
· Relapse= the return of a disease after its apparent cessation, بحال نخستين برگشتن.
· Remain= بقايا،باقيماندن.
· Remission= diminution of the symptoms of a disease; تخفيف ،بهبودى بيمارى.
· Remnant= باقى مانده ، بقايا
· Renal cyst= a fluid filled mass in the kidney.
· Renal failure = the reduction of kidney function that results in excessive amounts of urea and creatinine in the blood.
· Renal pyramid= any of various pyramidal masses that are seen upon longitudinal section of the kidney and that contain part of the secreting tubules and the collecting tubules. Also called malpighian pyramid, medullary pyramid.
· Renal vascular hypertension= a rise in systemic blood pressure resulting from stenosis of the renal artery.
· Renal= کليه اى.
· Rennin= an enzyme that occurs in gastric juice; causes milk to coagulate.
· Resection= برش ،قطع.
· Resemble= شباهت داشتن.
· Residue= پس مانده.
· Resolution= دقت ، قدرت تشخيص ، قدرت تفکيک اجزا يا درشت نمايى.
· Resorption= the process of resorbing or the state of being resorbed; جذب دوباره.
· Restrict= محدود كردن، منحصركردن.
· Restriction= ممنوعيت ، جلو گيرى.
· Resuscitation= بهوش اورى.
· Retention= ابقا، نگهداري.
· Reticular Formation= nerve fibers located inside the brainstem. Regulates awareness and sleep.
· Reticular= مشبک ،شبکه اى.
· Retinopathy= disease of the retina (شبکيه) which results in impairment or loss of vision.
· Retraction= act of taking back; تو كشيدن، انقباض.
· Retro-= backward, behind.
· Retrocaval ureter= a condition in which the ureter deviates (منحرف شدن) medially and passes behind the inferior vena cava, winding (پيچاندن) about and crossing in front of it from medial to lateral side.
· Retrocaval= situated or occurring behind the vena cava.
· Retrocrural space =RCS; a small triangular region within the most inferior posterior mediastinum bordered by the two diaphragmatic crura.
· Retrograde= عقب کشيدن ، پس گستر.
· Retroperitoneal space= space located behind the abdominal cavity.
· Retroperitoneal= located behind the peritoneum, of or pertaining to the area behind the peritoneum .
· Retrosternal= behind the sternum (the breastbone.).
· Reverse= وارونه کردن.
· Rhythmic= having a regular beat.
· Rickets= is a childhood condition caused by serious vitamin D deficiency.
· Ridden= ride, سوارى.
· Right Atrium= receives de-oxygenated blood from the body through the superior vena cava (head and upper body) and inferior vena cava (legs and lower torso). The sinoatrial node sends an impulse that causes the cardiac muscle tissue of the atrium to contract. The tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium from the right ventricle, opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle.
· Right Ventricle= receives de-oxygenated blood as the right atrium contracts. The pulmonary valve leading into the pulmonary artery is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood. Once the ventricles are full, they contract. As the right ventricle contracts, the tricuspid valve closes and the pulmonary valve opens.
· Rigidity= انعطاف ناپذيرى ،سفتى.
· Rim= کناره ،ديواره.
· Rod= عصا،چوب ،ترکه ،ميل.
· Rosary= تسبيح.
· Rotation= چرخش.
· Roughage= food that is rich in fiber and cellulose.
· Route= مسير، راه،جريان.
· Rubella= روبلا ، سرخجه.
· Rugger-jersey spine= At radiography, sclerotic bands along the superior and inferior thoracic and lumbar vertebral body endplates give a striped appearance to the vertebral bodies, with a relative band of lucency at the center of each vertebral body. The alternating parallel sclerotic and lucent bands are analogous to the stripes on an English rugby sweater, from which arises the name “rugger jersey spine”.
· Rule out= رد کردن ،خط زدن.
· Rupture= جدايي، تركيدن، قطع كردن، پارگي.
· Sacroiliac= خاصره اى خاجى.
· Sacrum= استخوان خاجى.
· Sacular= having the shape of a sac.
· Saddle= زينى شکل.
· Sail= کشتيرانى کردن ،بادبان.
· Sailor= دريانورد.
· Saline= محلول نمک.
· Saliva= بزاق.
· Salpingitis= inflammation of the fallopian tubes.
· Salter- Harris (epiphyseal) type fractures= five distinct variations in fractures through the epiphyseal plate. Bleeding into the growth plate results in slow or stoppage of growth of the bone.
· Sandblasting= ماسه پرانى.
· Sarcoma = a highly malignant tumour composed of a substance like embryonic connective tissue.
· Scallop= a series of indentations or erosions on a normally smooth margin of a structure; حلزوونهاى دوکپه اى.
· Scalp= پوست جمجمه.
· Scaly=فلس مانند, زبر،ناهموار.
· Scanning speech= characterized by sliding (لغزش) and stretching (،کشش منبسط) of words, and slurring of phonation.
· Scaphoid bone= one of the carpal bones of the wrist.
· Scaphoid= زورقى.
· Scapula= shoulder blade, large flat bone forming the back of the shoulder, bladebone; استخوان کتف.
· Schatzski’s ring= a narrowing of the lower part of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing. The narrowing is caused by a ring of mucosal tissue (which lines the esophagus) or muscular tissue.
· Schistosomiasis= snail fever; a parasitic disease caused by several species of tremotodes , a parasitic worm of the genus Schistosoma, often is a chronic illness that can damage internal organs and, in children, impair growth and cognitive development.
· Schmorl’s node= an upward and downward protrusion (پيش امدگى) of a spinal disk’s soft tissue into the bony tissue of the adjacent vertebrae; a spinal defect characterized by protrusion of the nucleus pulposus into the spongiosa of a vertebra.
· Sclera= صلبيه چشم.
· Sclerotic= pertaining to an abnormal hardening of tissues.
· Scoliosis= a side-to-side curvature of the spine.
· Scotty dog sign= refers to the normal appearance of the lumbar spine when seen obliquely.
· Scotty= اسکاتلندى.
· Scraping= تراشيدن ، خرده.
· Scurvy= a condition caused by a lack of vitamin C in the diet. Signs of scurvy include tiredness, muscle weakness, joint and muscle aches, a rash on the legs.
· Seal off = make tight; secure against leakage; مهر وموم کردن.
· Sedentary= بى حرکت ،نشسته.
· Seed= دانه، كاشتن.
· Self centered= caring only about yourself and your own needs.
· Sella turcica= a saddlelike prominence on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone of the skull, situated in the middle cranial fossa and dividing it into two halves. (جمع half).
· Senile= سالخورده ،پير مرد.
· Septal defects= a congenital abnormality in the septum between the left and right sides of the heart; the blood from the left side of the heart (oxygenated) shunts from left to right and mixes with the unoxygenated blood.Types include: 1. Atrial septal involves an opening between the atria producing overloading of the right atrium and right ventricle. 2. Ventricular septal defect involves an opening between the ventricles causing increased pulmonary blood flow resulting in increased pulmonary venous return. 3. Patent foramen ovale occurs when foramen ovale (opening between the atria in a fetus) fails to close at birth resulting in a septal defect.
· Septal= جدارى.
· Septum=plural septa; thin membrane that serves to divide two bodily cavities or tissues.
· Sequester= جدايى.
· Sequestrum= a piece of dead bone that has become separated during the process of necrosis from normal/sound bone.
· Sessile= بى ساقه ،بى پايه.
· Shaggy= زبر، پر مو،پشمالو.
· Shake= لرزيدن.
· Shaky= مرتعش ،لرزان.
· Shallow= سطحى.
· Shield= پوشش محافظ ،سپرشدن
· Shin= front part of the leg between the knee and ankle; ساق پا.
· Shoveler= بيل زن.
· Shrink= چوروک شدن ،منقبض شدن
· Sickle cell anemia= an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. People with sickle cell disease have red blood cells that contain mostly hemoglobin S, an abnormal type of hemoglobin. Sometimes these red blood cells become sickle-shaped and have difficulty passing through small blood vessels.
· Sickle= داس.
· Significance= مفيد،معنى ، مفاد ،اهميت.
· Simulate= شباهت داشتن ،شبيه سازى کردن.
· Sinus= cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane..
· Sinusitis= an inflammation of the paranasal sinus results in an obstruction of the drainage of the sinuses.
· Situs= موقعيت ، ناحيه.
· Skull= جمجمه.
· Slant= اريب ،سراشيب ،کج.
· Sleeve= پوسته ،روپوش ،سردست.
· Slide= لغزيدن.
· Slough= پوسته پوسته شدگي،پوستانداختن.
· Smith’s fracture= similar to a Colles’s fracture except the distal fragment is displaced anteriorly.
· Soft palate= soft part of the roof of the mouth located in the rear near the throat.
· Soil= الودن, کثيف کردن ،خاکى کردن.
· Somatotropin= growth hormone, peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates growth in human beings.
· Soot= دوده گرفتن ،دوده بخارى.
· Speckle= لکه کوچک ،نقطه نقطه.
· Sphenoid= sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull; گوهاي،شب پرهاي
· Spherocytosis= an auto-hemolytic anemia characterized by the production of red blood cells (RBCs), that are sphere-shaped, rather than bi-concave disk shaped.
· Sphincters of stomach= they are the esophageal sphincter (found in the cardiac region, not an anatomical sphincter) dividing the tract above, and the pyloric sphincter dividing the stomach from the small intestine.
· Spill into= to be so great in number or volume as to expand into another area.
· Spina bifida= a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings (پوشش).
· Spinal fusion= the fixation of an unstable segment of the spine, accomplished sometimes by skeletal traction or immobilization of the patient in a body cast but most frequently by a surgical procedure, also called spondylosyndesis.
· Spinal nerves= 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
· Spindle= دوک.
· Spine = ستون فقرات ، خار يا برامدگي; sharp, slender, often pointed projection. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment).
· Spinous process= single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch (actually the fused laminae).
· Spiral fracture = caused by a twisting force. The fracture line runs obliquely and twists around the long axis of the bone. It usually involves a long section of the shaft.
· Splint= thin piece of wood or other material used to immobilize a broken bone while it is healing, وسايل شکسته بندى.
· Splinter=break off into small slender fragments, متلاشى شدن, شکافتن.
· Split= انشعاب، دوبخشي، شكافتن.
· Spondylitis= a type of arthritis that causes chronic inflammation of the spine.
· Spondylolisthesis= forward displacement of a vertebra over a lower segment, usually of the fourth or fifth lumbar vertebra.
· Spondylolysis= the breaking down of a vertebra. Degeneration of the articulating part of a vertebra.
· Spontaneous= خود به خودى.
· Sprue= a disease of tropical regions that is of unknown cause and is characterized by fatty diarrhea and malabsorption of nutrients.
· Spur= a sharp and especially bony outgrowth; سيخ.
· Sputum= خلط سينه.
· Squamous= فلسى.
· Square= چارگوش.
· Stab= خنجر زدن.
· Stabbing= چاقو کشى.
· Staging= doing exams and tests to learn the extent of a cancer, especially whether it has spread from its original site to other parts of the body.
· Stasis= بند امدن ،گرفتگى.
· Steady= مداوم ،پيوسته ويکنواخت.
· Stem cell transplantation= SCT; a stem cell transplant is the infusion of healthy stem cells into body. A stem cell transplant may be necessary if bone marrow stops working and doesn’t produce enough healthy stem cells.
· Stem cells= unspecialized cells from which other more specialized cells can be derived. Stem cells obtained from embryos and fetuses are thought to be best because they are more likely to survive transplantation than those obtained from children or adults.
· Stem= originate; ساقه.
· Stenosis = narrowing of a passage or opening.
· Stent= thin tube inserted into a tubular structure.
· Sterility= نازايى.
· Sternal= جناغى.
· Sternum= breastbone, long flat bone connected to the ribs; استخوان جناغ.
· Sterol= any of a group of natural steroid alcohols .
· Stocking= جوراب ساقه بلند.
· Stoop= دولاشدن ،خميدگى.
· Stoppage= انقطاع, جلوگيرى.
· Strain= کشيدگى.
· Strangle= گلوى کسى را فشردن ،خفه کردن.
· Strangulate= گلورافشردن، خفه كردن.
· Streak= ميل ،نوار يا رگه نوارى.
· Stream= جارى شدن.
· Stress ( fatique) fracture= fracture occurs due to repetitive stress on bones. Examples are: 1. Shin splints fracture– minute fractures of the tibia from jogging; 2. March- fractures of the metatarsals usually at the neck of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th metatarsal. It is commonly seen in military personnel subject to vigorous hiking and marching.
· Striatum= جسم مخطط.
· Stricture= narrowing of a hollow structure.
· Stricture= stenosis; an abnormal narrowing of a bodily passage.
· Stridor= a term used to describe noisy breathing in general, and to refer specifically to a high-pitched crowing sound; a whistling sound when breathing.
· Strike= تصادف کردن ، يورش ، ضربه زدن.
· String sign= gastrointestinal string sign; a medical term for a radiographic finding on an Upper GI series, in which the patient is given a radio-opaque material.The gastrointestinal string sign represents a severe narrowing of loop of bowel, in which a thin stripe (خط راه راه) of contrast within the lumen looks like a string.
· String= به نخ کشيدن.
· Stunted= بازماندن, کوتاه نگاه داشتن ،کوتاه.
· Styloid= شبيه نيزه.
· Subarachnoid space= the space between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
· Subchondral= below the cartilage.
· Subcutaneous emphysema= SCE; refers to emphysema under the skin. The condition may also sometimes be referred to as tissue emphysema, for people with this condition, the subcutaneous skin layer is exposed air or gas.
· Subcutaneous= the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis (skin).
· Subdural hematoma= results from venous bleeding into the space between the dura and the arachnoid mater.
· Subdural= situated or occurring between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane of the brain and spinal cord.
· Subdural= situated or occurring between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane of the brain and spinal cord.
· Subglottic= inferior to the glottis.
· Subperiosteal= situated under the periosteum.
· Subphrenic= beneath the diaphragm.
· Substantia Nigra= a layer of deeply pigmented gray matter situated in the midbrain and containing the cell bodies of a tract of dopamine-producing nerve cells whose secretion tends to be deficient in Parkinson’s disease.
· Subtle= ماهرانه، دقيق.
· Sudden infant death syndrome= the leading cause of infant death and occurs when a child is thought to be sleeping. It is an unexpected death also know as crib death.
· Sufficiently= بس، كافي.
· Suffocation= خفگى ،خفه سازى.
· Superior and inferior articular processes= paired projections lateral to the vertebral foramen, allowing a vertebra to form joints with adjacent vertebrae.
· Superior Vena Cava=SVC; one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
· Supine= lying on the back or with the face upward ; برپشت خوابيدن.
· Supracondylar fracture= describes the location of a fracture in the supracondylar region of the humerus. This is a common injury seen in children who have fallen on their elbow from a height.
· Surfactant= a complex naturally occurring substance made of six lipids and four proteins that is produced in the lungs
· Survey= نقشه بردارى کردن از، ،ارزيابى کردن.
· Susceptibility= در معرض خطر بودن ،در معرض اسيب بودن ،مستعد بيمارى بودن.
· Suspicious= ظنين ، مشکوک.
· Sustained= نگهداشتن.
· Suture= an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull).
· Suture= درز،بخيه ،شکاف.
· Symphysis= پيوستگى،اتصال.
· Syndrome = a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a specific abnormality.
· Synovia= a clear, viscid lubricating fluid secreted by membranes in joint cavities.
· Synovitis= inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines a synovial joint.