اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم قلب و عروق ( N , O , P)
· Nausea= حالت تهوع.
· Navicular= زورقى شکل.
· Necrosis = death of a tissue.
· Neonate= نوزاد.
· Neoplasm= tumor; abnormal tissue growth.
· Nephrocalcinosis= deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma due to hyperparathyroidism; presence of calcium deposits in the kidneys.
· Nephrolithiasis= presence of renal calculi.
· Neuralgia= pain along the course of a nerve.
· Neuropathic joint= a destructive joint disease caused by diminished proprioceptive (reception of information about body position movements by the sensory systems) sensation that results in repeated subliminal (زيراستانه اى ، نیمه خود آگاه) injury, Charcot’s foot.
· Neuropathy= disease affecting the nervous system.
· Neuroplasty= surgical repair of a nerve.
· Neutrophil= fight bacterial infection. They form pus and are the chief ingredient of an abscess.
· NG= nasogastric (involving the nose and stomach).
· Nidus= جاى تخم گذارى.
· Node= گره ، برامدگى ،غده.
· Non uniform= غيريکسان.
· Nostril= سوراخ بينى.
· Notch= بريدگي، شكاف ، فرورفتگي.
· Noxious= مضر،مهلک.
· Nuchal= of the nape (پشت گردن) of the neck; وابسته به پشت گردن
· Nystagmus= حرکت غيرارادى کره چشم.
· Oat cell= any of the small round or oval cells with a high ratio of nuclear protoplasm to cytoplasm that resemble oat grains and are characteristic of a small-cell lung cancer.
· Oat= جو دو سر،جو صحرايى.
· Oblique fracture= the fracture line runs on the diagonal (45 °) to the long axis of the bone.
· Obliterate= از بين بردن ،محو کردن.
· Obliteration= destruction, محو.
· Obscure= مشکوک ،کدر،پوشاندن ،مخفى کردن.
· Obstruction= انسداد،منع ،جلو گيرى.
· Obturator foramen= a large opening in the hip bone between the pubis and the ischium.
· Obturator= مسدودکننده.
· Occasionally= گهگاه.
· Occipital= پس سرى.
· Occlude= مسدود کردن.
· Occlusion= انسداد.
· Occult blood= blood in the feces in such small quantities that cannot be seen by the naked eye but can be detected by chemical tests.
· Occult= از نظر پنهان کردن.
· Occupy= اشغال کردن ،تصرف کردن.
· Odontoid fractures= occur at the base of the odontoid process.
· Odontoid= مانند دندان, (Odontoid process is a toothlike process at the back of 2nd vertebra of the neck).
· Olecranon= the process of the ulna projecting behind the elbow (ارنج) joint.
· Olfactory Bulb= bulb-shaped end of the olfactory lobe, involved in the sense of smell.
· Olfactory groove = the sagittal groove on the lower or orbital surface of each frontal lobe of the cerebrum, demarcating the straight gyrus (چين سينوسى مغز) from the orbital gyri (plural of gyrus), also called olfactory sulcus.
· Olfactory= وابسته بحس بويايى.
· Oligodentrocytoma= slow growing tumour of the cerebrum which tend to calcify
· Oliguria= less urination than normal.
· Omentum , Peritoneum, Mesentery= * The peritoneum is thin membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities, and covers most abdominal viscera. It is composed of layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. Parietal peritoneum is that portion that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Those cavities are also known as the peritoneal cavity.Visceral peritoneum covers the external surfaces of most abdominal organs, including the intestinal tract. * Omentum is a fold of peritoneum connecting or supporting abdominal structures (as the stomach and liver). Greater omentum is a part of the peritoneum attached to the greater curvature of the stomach and to the colon and hanging down over the small intestine—called also caul, gastrocolic omentum. Lesser omentum is a part of the peritoneum attached to the liver and to the lesser curvature of the stomach and supporting the hepatic vessels. * Mesentery is any of several folds of the peritoneum that connect the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall, especially such a fold that envelops (احاطه کردن ، پیچیدن) the jejunum and ileum.
· Onset= هجوم ،وهله ،شروع.
· Opacify= make cloudy, make dim, turn opaque.
· Opaque= ناشفاف.
· Orifice= روزنه ،سوراخ.
· Osgood-Schlatter disease= one of the most common causes of knee pain in young athletes. It causes swelling, pain and tenderness just below the knee, over the shin bone (tibia)..
· Ossification= استخوانى شدن.
· Osteitis deformans= Paget’s disease; this is a chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged, deformed bones due to excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue that can cause bones to weaken.
· Osteitis= inflammation of bone.
· Osteoblast= a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. Osteoblasts are also responsible for mineralization of the osteoid matrix. ياخته استخوان ساز.
· Osteoblastic= pertaining to cells which form bones.
· Osteochondroma= exostosis; an abnormal solitary benign growth of bone and cartilage typically at the end of a long bone.
· Osteoclast= a large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue; an instrument used in surgical osteoclasis.
· Osteoclastic= pertaining to osteoclasts (cells which absorb calcium from bone and cartilage).
· Osteoclastoma= Giant cell tumor of the bone; a relatively uncommon tumor. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. These tumors are generally benign.
· Osteogenesis imperfecta = hereditary disorder in which bones fracture and break easily from little or no obvious cause.
· Osteogenic sarcoma= osteosarcoma is a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor that usually develops during the period of rapid growth that occurs in adolescence, as a teenager matures into an adult.
· Osteogenic= pertaining to bone formation.
· Osteoid= like bone; the organic matrix of bone; young bone that has not undergone calcification.
· Osteolytic= Causing the breakdown of bone.
· Osteomalacia= is softening of the bones due to a lack of vitamin D or a problem with the body’s ability to break down and use this vitamin.
· Osteomyelitis= inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
· Osteopenia= reduced bone mass due to a decrease in the rate of osteoid synthesis.
· Osteopetrosis= a hereditary disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of bone, and by the common occurrence of fractures of affected bone.
· Osteophyte= outgrowth on a bone, protrusion on a bone; بر امدگى استخوانى.
· Osteoplasty= plastic surgery of the bones.
· Osteoporotic= of or pertaining to osteoporosis.
· Osteotomy= برش استخوان و خارج کردن قسمتى از استخوان
· Outlet= مجراى خروج.
· Outlet= مجراي خروج.
· Output= بروندهى.
· Oval= resembling an ellipse in shape.
· Ovary= lie on the lateral walls of the pelvis; rleases estrogen for development of secondary sexual characters.
· Overflow= لبريزى.
· Overhanging= برامدگي ، اويزان بودن، مشرفبودن.
· Paget’s disease= osteitis deformans; a chronic bone disorder in which there is abnormal bone remodeling (the process of bone breakdown and rebuilding). With Paget’s disease, bone is broken down more quickly and is then replaced with softer, more porous bone.
· Palate= the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities, سقف دهن.
· Palatine= ،وابسته بکام يا سقف دهن.
· Palliative= مسکن موقتى.
· Pallor= pallidness, lack of colour, کمرنگى.
· Palpable= قابل لمس.
· Pancreas= a double gland; Insulin regulates sugar metabolism.
· Pancreatitis= an inflammation of the pancreas in which abscesses may develop in the pancreas which persist and are known pseudocysts.
· Pannus= an inflammatory exudate overlying the synovial cells on the inside of a joint.
· Papillary Muscles= attach to the lower portion of the interior wall of the ventricles. They connect to the chordae tendineae, which attach to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle. The contraction of the papillary muscles opens these valves. When the papillary muscles relax, the valves close.
· Papillary= a small nipple-shaped projection or elevation; برامدگى کوچک.
· Paraesophageal= near or beside the esophagus.
· Paralysis= temporary or permanent loss of motor control.
· Paranasal= adjacent to the nasal cavities, نزديک ِ بينى.
· Paraplegia= paralysis of the lower half of the body with involvement of both legs usually due to disease of or injury to the spinal cord.
· Parenchyma= بافت اصلى.
· Paresis= فلج ناقص ،فلج خفيف.
· Paresthesia= اختلال حس لمس بصورت خارش ،مورمور شدن.
· Parietotemporal = relating to the parietal and the temporal bones.
· Parous= بچه زاييده.
· Patchy= تکه تکه ،وصله وصله.
· Patency= the openness of a bodily passage or duct, گشودگى.
· Patent ductus arteriosus= occurs when the ductus arteriosus (opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery in a fetus) fails to close after birth.
· Patent foramen ovale= PFO; while a baby grows in the womb, there is a normal opening between the left and right atria of the heart. If this opening fails to close naturally soon after the baby is born, the hole is called patent foramen ovale.
· Patent= حق انحصارى اختراع ،امتيازنامه.
· Path= مسير.
· Pathological fracture= a fracture that occur in a bone which is weakened by a disease process. Usually classified according to the underlying cause: 1. local changes – secondary to infection, tumours, disease; 2. generalized skeletal changes – secondary to osteoporosis, scurvy, osteomalacia, Paget’s, hyperparathyroidism etc.
· Pedicle= slender stalk-like body part on an organism; the segment between the transverse process and the vertebral body; stalk; ساقه اصلى.
· Peduncle= a band of white matter joining different parts of the brain ; ساقه اصلى; eg: peduncular polyp.
· Pelvis=لگنچه كليوي, لگن خاصره.
· Penetrate= رسوخ ،نفوذ کردن.
· Peptic= of the digestive system.
· Percutaneous=through the skin, as in a percutaneous biopsy; از راه پوست.
· Perforation= سوراخ کردن.
· Periarticular= pertaining to the area around a joint.
· Pericolic= surrounding or encircling the colon.
· Periosteum= پوشش استخوان.
· Peritoneal dialysis= a treatment for patients with severe chronic kidney disease. The process uses the patient’s peritoneum in the abdomen as a membrane across which fluids and dissolved substances (electrolytes, urea, glucose, albumin and other small molecules) are exchanged from the blood.
· Peritoneum= صفاق.
· Pernicious anemia= a severe megaloblastic anemia that is marked by a progressive decrease in the number of red blood cells and by pallor, weakness, and gastrointestinal and nervous disturbances and is caused by malabsorption of vitamin B12, کم خونى خطرناک .
· Pernicious= malignant, damaging, harmful, کشنده.
· Persist= اصرار كردن، ايستادگي.
· Perspiration= عرق کردن.
· Perspire= تعريق.
· Perthe’s disease= coxa plana; when the ball of the thighbone (استخوان ران) in the hip doesn’t get enough blood, causing the bone to die.
· PET= Positron Emission Tomography; technique for creating detailed images of bodily tissues by injecting positron-laden (مملو از پوزیترون) material into the body and recording the gamma rays emitted over a period of approximately two hours.
· Pharynx=the hollow tube that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea and esophagus , حلق.
· Phenomenon= پديده ،حادثه ،عارضه.
· Phlebitis= inflammation of the veins.
· Phlebolith= a vein stone.
· Phlegm= خلط.
· Photodynamic therapy= treatment that destroys cancer cells with lasers and drugs that become active when exposed to light.
· Phrenic= pertaining to the diaphragm, pertaining to the wall of muscles or membranes that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.
· Physis= the segment of a bone that is responsible for lengthening.
· Pia mater= the innermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord.
· Pinna= لاله گوش.
· Pisiform= شبيه نخود.
· Pituitary (Master Gland) = located base of fore brain, pea (نخود) shaped; 1.Growth Hormone; 2. Anti-diuretic hormone; 3. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (Defending the body against physiological stress); 4.Thyroid stimulating hormone.
· Pituitary adenoma= a tumour that arises in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
· Pituitary= غده هيپوفيز.
· Plain (ساده ، ميدان) film= an x-ray taken without the use of a contrast medium.
· Plantar Fasciitis: a painful condition caused by overuse of the plantar fascia or arch tendon of the foot. The Plantar Fascia is a broad, thick band of tissue that runs from under the heel to the front of the foot.
· Plaque= a small abnormal patch on or inside the body.
· Plaster= گچ کارى کردن.
· Plate= ورقه ،صفحه.
· Platelet= small cytoplasmic body in the blood that aids in clotting; پلاکتهاى خونى.
· Plegia= paralysis.
· Pleural effusion= fluid in the pleural space resulting from other chest conditions.
· Plexus= intersection of nerves; network of blood vessels and nerves; شبکه.
· Pneumo-= is derived from the Greek pneuma meaning wind, air, or breath.
· Pneumoconiosis= disease caused by the presence of a large amount of dust in the lungs; nodular changes and fibrosis of lung tissue following inhalation of various/particles usually occupational in origin. Types are: 1. Silicosis occurs following inhalation of silica as in sand blasting and manufacture of ceramics. 2. Asbestosis occurs following inhalation of asbestos fibers as in fireproofing, mining & manufacture of asbestosis products. 3. Anthracosis occurs following inhalation of carbon dust as with coal miners.
· Pneumocystis= a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungal
· Pneumomediastinum= Mediastinal emphysema; air or gas in the mediastinum.
· Pneumonia= a lung infection, which results in reduced pulmonary function.
· Pneumothorax= a collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that causes part or all of a lung to collapse.
· Pollen= گرده ،گرده افشانى.
· Polycystic kidney= a progressive, genetic disorder of the kidneys and characterized by the presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys which will destroy the parenchyma and result in renal failure and insufficiency.
· Polydipsia= excessive thirst as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction ; عطش بيش از حد،استسقاء.
· Polyp = small mass of tissue arising from mucous membrane to project inward into a hollow structure; generally benign growths into hollow structures. Commonly found in the large bowel, some polyps may develop into cancerous growths.
· Pons= the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus; narrow piece of tissue connecting two parts of a bodily organ; پل دماغى.
· Portal= a communicating part or area of an organism; of or relating to a porta or hilum; of or relating to the portal vein or the portal system.
· Portion= جزئى ،بخشى.
· Post mortem= پس از مرگ.
· Postural hypertension= a medical condition where blood pressure falls rapidly after the body changes position most commonly occurring after standing up after sitting for long periods of time. It is also known as orthostatic hypertension.
· Posture= وضع ،حالت.
· Pott’s disease= سل ستون فقرات.
· Pouch= کيسه کوچک.
· Predispose= مستعد کردن ،زمينه را مهيا ساختن.
· Presenile dementia=Alzheimer’s disease , زوال عقل پيش پيرى.
· Presenile= پيش پيرى.
· Prespiration= the secretion of fluid by the sweat (sudoriferousعرق زا،) glands.
· Prime= مهمترين ، نخست ،درجه يک.
· Process= جريان کار،زائده; any bony prominence. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment).
· Proctocolectomy = the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon.
· Profuse= فراوان.
· Projectile= جسم پرتاب شونده
· Prominence= برجستگى ،برترى.
· Prominent= برجسته ،والا.
· Promontory= دماغه بلند،راس ، برامدگى.
· Promptly= بفوريت.
· Pronathism= typically benign, slow-growing tumors that arise from cells in the pituitary gland.
· Prone= در معرض ،مستعد ،درازکش ،دمر.
· Pronounce= تلفظ كردن.
· Pronounced= معلوم ،مشخص ،مسلم.
· Prostate cancer= the second most common cancer in males over the age of 50 which is detected as a hard nodule on a routine digital rectal examination.
· Protrude= برامدگى داشتن ،جلو امده بودن.
· Protrusion= act of causing to bulge outward; پيش امدگى.
· Protuberance= تورم ،بادکردگى.
· Proximal=closest, nearest; مجاور.
· PSA= prostate-specific antigen ; elevated levels of PSA in blood serum are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. A normal PSA reading ranges from 0 to 4 ng/ml.
· Pseudocysts= a pathological collection of fluid. It is technically not a cyst. The wall of a true cyst consists of a clearly defined (مشخص) epithelial cell layer. The wall of a pseudocyst consists of granulation and/or fibrous tissue (which is present secondary to inflammation).
· PTA= Percutaneous (زير پوستى) Transluminal Angioplasty; a type of balloon angioplasty in which the catheter is inserted through the skin and through the lumen of the vessel to the site of the narrowing.
· Ptosis= prolapse or fallen position of an organ; a drooping upper eyelid.
· Pubic= شرمگاهى.
· Pucker= چروك، چين.
· Puffer= پف کننده.
· Pulmonary Artery= the vessel transporting de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. A common misconception is that all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood.
· Pulmonary edema= fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli; swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. It is due to either failure of the heart to remove fluid from the lung circulation (cardiogenic pulmonary edema), or due to a direct injury to the lung parenchyma (noncardiogenic pulmonary edema).
· Pulmonary embolus= blockage of an artery of the lung by foreign matter such as fat, tumor, tissue, or a clot originating from a vein.
· Pulmonary infract= localized necrosis of lung tissue, due to obstruction of the arterial blood supply.
· Pulmonary Valve= separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right ventricle to flow to the lungs.
· Pulmonary Vein= the vessel transporting oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. A common misconception is that all veins carry de-oxygenated blood.
· Pulsion= راندن.
· Punch out= to overcome or beat someone by punching.
· Punch= مشت زدن.
· Puncture= the act of piercing (سوراخ کردن ،فروکردن) or penetrating (نفوذ کردن ،رخنه کردن) with a pointed object or instrument.
· Pupil= مردمک چشم.
· Purulent= چرکى.
· Pyelography= X-ray photography of the kidneys, renal pelvices, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection with a radiopaque dye.
· Pyelonephritis= an inflammation of the kidney parenchyma and renal pelvis.
· Pyloromyotomy= surgical incision of the muscle fibers of the pyloric sphincter for relief of stenosis caused by muscular hypertrophy.
· Pyrexia = fever; تب.
· Pyrosis= سوزش معده.