اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم گوارشی (J , K , L , M)
· Jag= برامدگى تيز، ناهموار.
· Jaundice= زردي.
· Jaw= فک.
· Jefferson’s fracture= comminuted fracture of the both the arches of Cl with lateral displacement of fragments. In AP open mouth it appears as lateral spreading of the inferior articular facets of the lateral masses of Cl in relationship to the superior articular facets of C2.
· Jejunostomy= the creation of a permanent opening between the jejunum (part of the small intestine extending from the duodenum to the ileum) and the surface of the abdominal wall.
· Jogging= اهسته دويدن، هل دادن.
· Junction= اتصال ،نقطه تقاطع ،نقطه انشعاب.
· Jut= پيشرفتگي داشتن، پيش امدگي.
· Kink= پيچيدن ،پيچ خوردگى.
· Knob= تکمه ،برامدگى.
· Knobby= گره دار ، داراى برامدگى.
· Knuckle= برامدگي.
· KUB= a diagnostic medical imaging technique of the abdomen and stands for kidney, ureter and bladder.
· Kyphosis= قوز،گوژ.
· Labrum= edge, rim, lip.
· Laceration= پارگى.
. Lamina= a thin plate or layer especially of an anatomical part.
· Lamina dura= compact bone that lies adjacent to the periodontal ligament, in the tooth socket. The lamina dura surrounds the tooth socket and provides the attachment surface with which the Sharpey’s fibers of the periodontal ligament perforate.
· Larynx= the organ of voice; the air passage between the lower pharynx and the trachea, ناى ،حنجره ،حلقوم.
· Latent= نهفته.
· Laxity= سستى ،شلى
· Leak= تراوش،چكه.
· Left Atrium= receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary vein. As the contraction triggered by the sinoatrial node progresses through the atria, the blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle; atria is plural of atrium .
· Left Ventricle= receives oxygenated blood as the left atrium contracts. The blood passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. The aortic valve leading into the aorta is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood. Once the ventricles are full, they contract. As the left ventricle contracts, the mitral valve closes and the aortic valve opens.
· Legionnaire= سرباز لژيون.
· Lengthen= طويل شدن.
· Lengthwise= از درازا،از طول.
· Lesion = an abnormal change in structure of an organ or part due to injury or disease; جراحت ،اسيب.
· Lesser curvature of stomach= the right or medial border of the stomach, marking the superior junction of the anterior and posterior surfaces.
· Lethargy= a lowered level of consciousness, with drowsiness, listlessness (بيحالى), and apathy (بى احساسى ،بى علاقگى).
· Leukemia= leucemia; cancer of the white blood cell in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leucocytes, suppressing the production of normal blood cells.
· Leukocytosis= افزايش تعداد گلبول هاى سفيد خون.
· Light headed= گيج ، حواس پرت.
· Limbic System Structures= Amygdala (involved in emotional responses, hormonal secretions, and memory); Cingulate Gyrus (a fold in the brain involved with sensory input concerning emotions and the regulation of aggressive behaviour); Fornix (an arching, fibrous band of nerve fibers that connect the hippocampus to the hypothalamus); Hippocampus (sends memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrievs them when necessary); Hypothalamus (directs a multitude of important functions such as body temperature, hunger, and homeostasis); Olfactory Cortex (receives sensory information from the olfactory bulb and is involved in the identification of odors) ;Thalamus (mass of grey matter cells that relay sensory signals to and from the spinal cord and the cerebrum).
· Limp= لنگ ،شل.
· Line= narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment).
· Linear (longitudinal, fissure) fracture= a lengthwise break in a bone.
· Linear= خطى ،طولى ،دراز.
· Lip= لبه.
· Liquefy= تبديل به مايع کردن.
· Lithotripsy= crushing and removing of kidney stones using a lithotripter; خردسازى.
· Lobular pneumonia (bronchopneumonia) = inflammation of the lungs.
· Lobular= relating to or resembling a lobule.
· Lobulate= lobe shaped; divided into lobes.
· Lodge= منزل کردن ، خيمه زدن.
· Longitudinal= در طول ،طولى.
· Loop= حلقه، گره، خميدگي.
· Lordosis= انحناى زياد ستون فقرات بطرف جلو.
· Low residue diet= a diet designed to reduce the frequency and volume of stools while prolonging intestinal transit time.
· Lucency= شفافى.
· Lucent= softly bright or radiant ;تابناک ،روشن وشفاف.
· Lumbar puncture= the withdrawal of spinal fluid from the lower back through a hollow needle, typically for diagnostic purposes.
· Lumbar= کمرى.
· Lumen= the cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ;لومن، واحد فلوى روشنايى .
· Lunate bone= one of the eight small wrist bones.
· Lunate= moon-shaped or crescentic; هلالى.
· Lung abscess = round lesion of pus and gas formed by destruction of the lung tissue.
· Luxation= در رفتگى مفصل استخوان.
· Lyme’s disease= an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick (انواع ساس وکنه).
· Lymphocyte= the virus killers blood cell.
· Lymphoma= malignant disease that affects the lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, lung and skin.
· Lymphoma= neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue.
· Lymphoreticular= consists of the lymphoid tissues and the tissues of the reticuloendothelial system (a component of the immune system, comprised of phagocytic cells located in different organs).
· Lytic= pertaining to lysis (تحليل) or to a lysine (antibody which causes dissolution);تجزیه ای .
· Malabsorption syndrome= a condition of impaired intestinal mucosal absorption resulting in severe under nutrition.
· Malaise= weakness or general discomfort caused by an illness.
· Malignant = a lesion that grows, spreads, and invades other tissues.
· Malleolar fracture= a partial dislocation of the ankle with fracture of the fibula within 5 -7.5 cm above the lateral malleolus and rupture medial ligaments of the ankle.
· Malleolar= mallealus; غوزکى.
· Malleolus= استخوان غوزک.
· Malrotation= failure of normal rotation of an organ.
· Mandible= lower jaw bone, فک.
· Manipulation= ساختن چيزى با دست ، ،انجام با مهارت.
· Manubrium= the broad upper part of the sternum, with which the clavicles and first ribs articulate; دسته چاقوياکارد.
· Marrow= pertaining to the spinal cord; مغزى ،نخاعى.
· Mass= توده.
· Mastoid= پستان مانند.
· Meatus=canal-like passageway. (Allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass); مجرا.
· Meckel’s diverticulum= a congenital sacculation of the distal ileum; a congenital defect in which the duct which connects the embryo to yolk sac in a fetus fails to close after birth.
· Medulla Oblongata= lower part of the brainstem that helps to control autonomic functions.
· Medullablastoma= rapidly growing glioma found in the vermis (قطعه ميانى مخچه) of the cerebellum.
· Medullary= pertaining to a medulla; pertaining to bone
· Megacolon= abnormal massive dilation of the colon that may be congenital, toxic, or acquired.
· Megaesophagus= dilation and hypertrophy of the lower portion of the esophagus .
· Megaloblast= a large, abnormally developed red blood cell typical of certain forms of anemia, associated with a deficiency of folic acid or of vitamin B12.
· Meningioma= a benign tumour arising from the meninges covering the brain.
· Meningitis= an acute or chronic inflammation of the meninges covering the brain and cord from infection sites outside the brain.
· Menses= قاعدگى زنان.
· Mesentery= a fold of the peritoneum attaching the stomach, small intestine, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.
· Mesothelioma= a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust.
· Metacarpophalangeal= of the metacarpus bone and the bones of the fingers.
· Metaphysis= the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis.
· Metastatic lesions= in the digestive tract usually spread to the liver from the stomach, large bowel, pancreas and esophagus; more common than primary lesions, and typically are rounded and found in all parts of the lung.
· Metastatic tumours= spreads to the brain via the blood from primary sites of lung, breast, Melanoma, colon, testicular and kidney.
· Micturition= ادرار کردن.
· Miller Abbot tube= a long (3 m) double-channel intestinal tube. Inserted through a nostril, the tube is passed through the stomach into the small intestine. Used for sampling (نمونه بردارى) gastrointestinal fluid or for therapeutic aspiration to relieve intestinal distension (بادکردگى).
· Minute= دقيقه ،دم ،ان ،لحظه.
· Misalign= align imperfectly or badly.
· Misalignment= اختلاف ،غيرهم محور.
· Miscellaneous= گوناگون ،متفرقه.
· Mitral Valve=separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. It opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle.
· Mode= شيوه.
· Module= مدول ، بخش،حدود، ،طرح ، مدل ،نمونه.
· Monckeberg’s medial sclerosis= form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits form in the middle layer of the walls of medium sized vessels.
· Monoclonal= derived from a single cell; pertaining to a single clone; تک بنيانی
· Monocyte= cells that have a killing and cleaning function. They are often increased in viral infections.
· Monteggia fracture= a fracture of the proximal third of the ulna accompanied by anterior dislocation of the radial head. The injury occurs by the transmission of the force following a fall on the outstretched hand through the hand and forearm when the elbow is partial flexed.
· Mood swing= extreme or quick changes in a person’s mood.
· Mortem= مرگ.
· Moth= بيد.
· Mottle= خالدار،لکه لکه ، رگه رگه.
· Mould= كپك، كپك زدن.
· Mound= تپه, برامدگى.
· Mucopurulent= composed of mucus and pus.
· Mumps= a relatively mild short-term viral infection of the salivary glands.
· Murmur= سخن نرم ،شکايت ،زمزمه کردن.
· Mutation = change or transformation, permanent variation in genetic structure.
· Muzzle= دهانه لوله اسلحه.
· Myelitis= inflammation of the spinal cord.
· Myelocytic= of a young bone marrow cell.
· Myelofibrosis= a rare disease of the bone marrow in which collagen builds up fibrous scar tissue inside the marrow cavity.
· Myelogram= x-ray of the spinal cord made after intraspinal injection of contrast medium.
· Myelography= is an x-ray examination of the spinal canal. A contrast agent is injected through a needle into the space around the spinal cord to display the spinal cord, spinal canal, and nerve roots on an x ray.
· Myeloma= تومور بدخيم سلول هاى مغز استخوان.
· Myelophthisic anemia= anemia in which the blood-forming elements of the bone marrow are unable to reproduce normal blood cells and which is commonly caused by specific toxins or by overgrowth of tumor cells.
· Myocardial infarction= the reduction of blood flow through one of the coronary arteries resulting in ischemia and necrosis of the muscle.