اصطلاحات پزشکی + دستگاه دفع ادرار و تناسلی (E , F , G)
· Ecchymosis= a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or a mucous membrane; خون مردگى ،کبودشدگى.
· Ectopic = out of normal position.
· Ectopic kidney= a condition in which the kidney is found outside of the normal position (between T12-L3)
· Eddy= جريان متلاطم.
· Edema = condition in which the tissues contain an excessive amount of fluid.
· Edematous= swollen with an excessive accumulation of fluid.
· Effusion= escape of a fluid into a part; exudation or transudation; برون تراوى.
· Electroencephalogram= record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain used to identify neurological conditions that affect brain function and level consciousness.
· Ellipsoid= figure in the shape of an ellipse; بيضى گون.
· Elongate= امتداد دادن.
· Elongation= افزايش درازا، کشيدگى.
· Embed= تعبيه کردن ، فرو کردن.
· Embolization= the process or condition of becoming an embolus; therapeutic introduction of a substance into a vessel in order to occlude it.
· Embolus= an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood (thrombosis attached, embolus moving).
· Eminence= برجستگى.
· Emphysema= the loss of elasticity of the alveoli resulting in the inability to completely exhale. Air exchange in the alveoli is impaired.
· Emphysematous cystitis= rare form of infectious cystitis characterized by the presence of gas in the bladder wall. Emphysematous cystitis is nearly always associated with diabetes mellitus.
· Emphysematous= pertaining to emphysema.
· Empyema= a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity).
· Enchondroma= a benign growth of cartilage arising in the metaphysis of a bone.
· Endarterectomy= surgical removal of the inner layer of an artery when thickened and atheromatous or occluded (as by intimal plaques).
· Endochondral= Growing or developing within cartilage; within cartilage.
· Endometritis= inflammation of the endometrium.
· Endosteal= of or relating to the endosteum; located within bone or cartilage.
· Endosteum=the tissue lining the medullary cavity of a bone.
· Enema= تنقيه.
· Enhance= کمک کردن ،تسهيل کردن ،بالابردن.
· Enhancement= افزايش ،بالابردن.
· Enhancer= تقویت گر.
· Enteroclysis= a fluoroscopic X-ray of the small intestine. Radiocontrast is infused through a tube inserted through the nose to the duodenum, and images are taken in real time as the contrast moves through.
· Enunciation= pronounce clearly.
· Eosinophil= cells which are strongly related to allergy and the recognition of foreign things in the body such as parasites.
· Epidural hematoma= bleeding into the epidural space around the brain due to a damage to an artery. It occurs over the partietotemporal lobes of the cerebrum.
· Epidural= outside the dura mater, between the meninges and skull.
· Epiglottis= a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing, اپى گلوت ،ناى بند،زبانک.
· Epiglottitis= an infection and swelling of the epiglottis causing an acute situation which impairs the ability to breath.
· Epiphysis= the name for a rounded end of a long bone.
· Episode= circumstance, event.
· Epistaxis= خون دماغ.
· Erode= فرسودن ، فرساييدن ،ساييدن.
· Erosion= ساييدگى.
· Erythroblastosis fetalis= develops when the mother and baby have different blood types. The mother produces antibodies that attack the developing baby’s red blood cells. The most common form is ABO incompatibility (نا سازگارى), which can vary in severity. The less common form is called Rh incompatibility .
· Erythroblastosis= the abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the circulating blood.
. Eruption= the act of breaking out, appearing, or becoming visible, as eruption of the teeth.
· Eruption of the teeth = درامدن دندان.
· Escape= گريختن ، رهايى جستن ،خلاصى.
· Ethmoid=one of the eight bones of the cranium, غربالي.
· Euphoria= شنگولى.
· Evenly= بطور هموار،صاف.
· Eversion = turning outward; برگردانى ،واژگونى ، پيچش به طرف خارج.
· Ewing’s sarcoma= a malignant round-cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs and clavicle.
· Excretion= دفع،مدفوع.
· Excretory= relating to the process of excretion (دفع ،مدفوع).
· Existing= موجود،حاضر
· Exocrine= برون تراو.
· Exostosis= a spur or bony outgrowth from a bone or the root of a tooth; برامدگى استخوان.
· Exostosis=osteochondroma; a benign bony growth projecting outward from a bone surface.
· Expand= بسط ،توسعه ،پهن کردن.
· Expansile= انبساطى.
· Expectoration= سينه صاف کنى ،تف اندازى.
· Exposure= پرتوگيرى ، ظهور، ظاهر شدن عکس.
· Expulsion= act of sending away, دفع.
· Extension= انبساط،امتداد دادن ،طولانى کردن.
· Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy= ESWL; the use of focused shock waves, generated outside the body, to fragment kidney stones
· Extracorporeal=outside the body; an extracorporeal medical procedure is a medical procedure which is carried outside the body.
· Extracranial MRA= magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery.
· Extraction basket= Used for endoscopic removal of stones and foreign bodies.
· Extraction= بيرون کشيدن، عصاره گيرى ، استخراج.
· Extravasation= a discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues.
· Extremity= end part of a limb of the body; نهايت، حدنهايي.
· Exudate = material which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues or their surfaces, usually the result of inflammation.
· Facet= (سطوح کوچک) smooth, nearly flat articular surface. (Helps to form joints).
· Fallopian tube= لوله فالوپ.
· False diverticulum= a diverticulum of the intestine that passes through a defect in the muscular wall of the gut (روده) and thus does not include a layer of muscle in its wall.
· False lumen= in a dissecting aneurysm, the abnormal channel within the wall of the involved artery.
· Fascia= a sheet of connective tissue (as an aponeurosis) covering or binding together body structures.
· Febrile = feverish; تبى.
· Femur= استخوان ران.
· Fetus= جنين.
· Feverish= تب دار،بيقرار.
· Fibrocartilagenous= relating to bone-like material.
· Fibromuscular= composed of fibrous and muscular tissue.
· Fill= پر کردن يا شدن ،انباشتن.
· Filling defect= any localized defect in the contour of the stomach, duodenum, or intestine, as seen in the radiograph after a barium enema.
· Fireproof= نسوز،ناسوز.
· Fissure= (شکاف) narrow, slitlike opening. (Depression and openings allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass).
· Fistula = abnormal connections, usually between 2 internal organs or from an internal organ to the surface of the body; a permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the exterior of the body.
· Flank= پهلو.
· Flare= زبانه کشيده.
· Flatulence= بادشکم ،نفخ شکم.
· Fleck= نقطه ،خال ،رگه ،راه راه.
· Flex= خم کردن.
· Flexion= خميدگي، انحناء.
· Flocculate= قلنبه, انبوهى.
· Fold= تا زدن يا شدن ،چين.
· Foley Catheter= a thin, sterile tube inserted into bladder to drain urine.
· Fontanel=fontanelle ;ملاج
. Foramen magnum= مجراى نخاع.
· Foramen ovale= a small hole located in the atrial septum that is used during fetal circulation to speed up the travel of blood through the heart. Normally the foramen ovale closes at birth .
· Foramen= سوراخ; round or oval opening through a bone. (Allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass).
· Forearm= the part of the arm between elbow and wrist, ساعد.
· Forensic Medicine = پزشکی قانونی
· Forensic= دادگاهى ،قانونى.
· Foul= جرزني، چرك شدن.
· Fracture = breaking or rupturing of bones caused by mechanical force.
· Fragile= شکننده.
· Fray= ترس ،ساييدن ،فرسوده شدن.
· Frogleg= Frog Leg.
· Fume= بخار شدن ،دود کردن.
· Fungating= to assume (تظاهر كردن) a fungal form or grow rapidly like a fungus (قارچ).
· Fusiform= دوک مانند،مخروطى.
· Fusion = process of uniting;ذوب ،اتصال ، اميختگى .
· Gait= شيوه راه رفتن.
· Gallstone ileus= obstruction of the large intestine caused by a gallstone that has blocked the intestinal opening.
· Gamma knife radiosurgery= a minimally invasive neurosurgical procedure. The Gamma Knife delivers a single high dose of ionizing radiation emanating. The highly focused beams of gamma rays are guided with surgical precision (دقت), without a scalpel and without the usual risks of open neurosurgery.
Gamma knife= a radiologic nonsurgical device that emits (تشعشع کردن) a highly focused beam of gamma radiation.
· Ganglia= plural of ganglion; a mass of nerve tissue containing cell bodies of neurons that is located outside the central nervous system and forms an enlargement upon a nerve or upon two or more nerves at their point of junction or separation; a mass of gray matter within the brain or spinal cord; گره ،غده عصبى ،غده لنفاوى ،برامدگى.
· Gangrene = necrosis or death of tissue due to deficient or absent blood supply.
· Gap= شکاف ،درز.
· Gastrinoma= plural gastrinomas; a tumor that often involves blood vessels, usually occurs in the pancreas or the wall of the duodenum, and produces excessive amounts of gastrin which stimulates gastric-acid secretion .
· Gaucher’s disease= genetic disease that causes an accumulation of fats in storage cells as a result of a lack of enzyme activity in breaking down molecules composed of sugar and fats.
· Giant cell tumour= osteoclastoma; predominantly at the end of long bones in the knee region, but also occurring in the wrist, arm, and pelvis. The large multinucleated cells (giant cells) found in these tumours resemble osteoclasts.
· Glactorrhea= the spontaneous flow of milk from the nipple at any time other than during nursing.
· Glenoid= کاسه اى ،گود.
· Glia= supporting tissue that is intermingled with the essential elements of nervous tissue especially in the brain, spinal cord, and ganglia, is either of ectodermal or mesodermal origin, and is composed of a network of fine fibrils and of flattened stellate cells with numerous radiating fibrillar.
· Glial= pertaining to glia or neuroglia (connective tissue which supports the nervous tissue).
· Glioblastoma= highly malignant tumour found maily in the cerebrum.
· Glioma= malignant tumour of the glial tissue of the nervous system; a general name for malignant tumours which arise from the supporting cells of the brain. They do not metastasize outside the nervous system.Types include: glioblastoma, astrocytoma, medullablastoma, ependymoma, oligodentrocytoma.
· Glomerulus= a small intertwined (بهم تابيدن) group of capillaries in the malpighian body (the capsule that contains Bowman’s capsule and a glomerulus at the expanded end of a nephron); glomeruli filter blood during urine formation.
· Gluteal= pertaining to the buttocks.
· Gonad= غده جنسى شامل بيضه يا تخمدان.
· Graft= پيوند.
· Granular= دانه دانه.
· Granulation= new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process.
· Granulocyte= a leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm.
· Greater curvature of stomach= the left or lateral and inferior border of the stomach, marking the inferior junction of the anterior and posterior surfaces.
· Greenstick fracture= bone fracture in which one side of the bone is bent and the other side is broken.
· Gross= فاحش،بزرگ، درشت ، زمخت.
· Grunt= خرخر كردن
· Gynecomastia= abnormal enlargement of the breast (in a male).