اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم اندوکرین و پزشکی قانونی (H , I)
· Hack= سرفه خشك وكوتاه.
· Hamate= بشکل قلاب.
· Handle= دستگيره.
· Hangman’s fracture= a fracture in the cervical spine through the pedicles of C-2 due to an acute hyperextension of the head. It may be associated with an anterior dislocation of the C-2 vertebral body with respect to C-3. It is most often occurs in MVA.
· Hard palate= bony front section of the palate that forms the roof of the mouth, سخت کام.
· Harrington rod= a threaded metal rod used to connect distraction (separation of joint surfaces) hooks in the stabilization of cervical vertebral instability.
· Hasten= شتاباندن.
· Hazy= کدر،تيره.
· Head=in anatomy: bony expansion (بسط) carried on a narrow neck. (Helps to form joints).
· Heel= پاشنه.
· Hematopoietic= of the formation and the development of blood cells.
· Hemiparesis= loss of movement on one side of the body.
· Hemivertebra= a developmental anomaly in which one side of a vertebra is incompletely developed; a vertebra that is incompletely developed on one side.
· Hemochromatosis= pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints.
· Hemodialysis= dialysis of the blood, removal of waste products from the body by a machine.
· Hemolysis= تحليل گويچه هاى قرمز.
· Hemolytic anemia= a condition in which there are not enough red blood cells in the blood, due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.
· Hemophilia= a hereditary bleeding condition resulting from deficiency of specific clotting factors.
· Hemoptysis=expectoration of blood from some part of the respiratory tract; خلط خونين.
· Hemothorax= blood in the pleural cavity.
· Hernia = protrusion of part of an organ through an opening in the wall of a cavity.
· HH= Hiatus Hernia; the protrusion (or herniation) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm .
· Hiatus hernia= a protrusion of the fundus of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
· Hiatus= شكاف، فاصله.
· High-kV technique= chest radiography using a kilovoltage of at least 125 kVp, usually 140–150 kVp, to reduce patient dose and increase latitude (عرض جغرافيايى ،وسعت).
· Hilum of lung= above and behind the cardiac impression is a triangular depression named the hilum, where the structures which form the root of the lung enter and leave the viscus (any of the internal organs of the body).
· Hilum= small opening in an organ through which nerves or vessels pass.
· Hindrance= مانع ، تاخير.
· Hirschsprung disease= congenital aganglionic megacolon; involves an enlargement of the colon, caused by bowel obstruction resulting from an aganglionic section of bowel (the normal enteric nerves are absent) that starts at the anus and progresses upwards.
· Hirschsprung’s or aganglionic megacolon= an absence or marked reduction of the parasympathetic ganglion cells in the colorectal walls.
· Hoarseness= گرفتگى صدا يا سينه
· Hodgkin’s lymphoma= malignant progressive disease which affects the lymph nodes as well as the spleen and the liver.
· Homicide= ادمکشى.
· Homogeneous= همگن ، هم جنس.
· Honey-comb= شانه عسل.
· Hood= کلاه اهنى ،درپوش ،کلاهک کاپوت ماشين.
· Horseshoe kidney= a deformity in which the lower poles of the kidneys are fused by functional parenchyma or by a fibrous band.
· Horseshoe kidney= renal fusion; a congenital disorder, in which a person’s two kidneys fuse together to form a horseshoe-shape during development in the womb (رحم).
· Hostile= خصمانه.
· HRCT= High Resolution (قدرت تشخيص) CT of the lung is used for diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease. It involves the use of special computed tomography scanning techniques in order to assess the lung parenchyma.
· Humerus= استخوان بازو.
· Humidification= رطوبت افزايى.
· Hunch= خم کردن, قوز.
· Hunchback= پشت قوز.
· Hydronephrosis= dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces with eventual destruction of the parenchyma due to the obstruction of urine flow.
· Hydrosalpinx= collection of watery fluid in a uterine tube (fallopian tube).
· Hydrothorax= fluid in the pleural space due to trauma; تجمع مايع در حفره جنب .
· Hydroureter= distention (extension, swelling) of the ureter with urine or watery fluid, due to obstruction.
· Hyoid= a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles, استخوان لامي.
· Hyperextend= extend a joint beyond its normal range; to extend so that the angle between bones of a joint is greater than normal.
· Hyperglycemia= abnormally increased content of glucose in the blood.
· Hyperinflation= تورم شديد.
· Hyperparathyroidism= an abnormally high concentration of parathyroid hormone in the blood, resulting in weakening of the bones through loss of calcium. The presence of excess parathyroid hormone in the body resulting in disturbance (اختلال) of calcium metabolism with increase in serum calcium and decrease in inorganic phosphorus, loss of calcium from bone, and renal damage with frequent kidney-stone formation.
· Hyperpituitarism= excessive activity of the pituitary gland, results in giantism if the epiphyses have not closed and acromegaly if the epiphyses are closed.
· Hyperplasia = abnormal increase in the number of cells composing a tissue or organ.
· Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis= the narrowing and elongation of the pyloric canal due to thickening of the pyloric sphincter.
· Hypertrophy = increase in size of an organ or structure not due to tumour formation.
· Hypoparathyroidism= occurs when the glands produce too little PTH. Blood calcium levels fall, and phosphorus levels rise.
· Hypopituitarism= results in dwarfism and diabetes insipidus.
· Hypoplasia = less than normal development.
· Hypothalamus= control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon).
· Hypoxia= کمبود اکسيژن در بافت هاى بدن.
· Hysterectomy= بيرون اوردن رحم.
· Hysterosalpingogram= x ray of the uterus and Fallopian tubes.
· Idiopathic Aseptic Necrosis= 1. Perthe’s (Legg-Calve-Perthe’s) also called coxa plana and osetochondritis deformans; ischemic necrosis of the femoral head which results in flattening of the head as it develops. 2. Osgood- Schlatter’s, incomplete separation of the epiphysis of the tibial tuberosity form the shaft of tibia; common in males between the ages of 10 and 15 years.
· Ileostomy= surgical opening made in the lower intestine.
· Ileus= a partial or complete non-mechanical blockage of the small and/or large intestine.
· Ilium= upper section of the hipbone.
· Impacted fracture= occurs when one fragment of bone is forcibly driven or telescoped into the adjacent fragment. It usually occurs in areas of cancellous bone for example in the shoulder where the proximal shaft of the humerus is driven into the humeral head.
· Impaction= فشار سخت ،بهم فشردگى
· Imperforate anus= occurs when there is a malformation of the anus and rectum resulting in the absence of the anal opening.
· Impingement= برخورد، تماس،اصابت.
· Inactivity= رکود،عدم فعاليت.
· Incarcerate= حبس کردن.
· Incompetent= incapable, عاجز،ناتوان.
· Incomplete fracture= often occurs in infants and children.1. Greenstick (an incomplete angulated fracture producing a bowing of the bone.); 2.Torus type or buckle produces an outward elevation of the bone.
· Incontinence= inability to control urination or defecation بى اختيارى ، ناخوددارى.
· Indentation= ايجاد فرورفتگى ،دندانه گذارى.
· Indistinct= نا معلوم ،تيره ،غير روشن.
· Infant respiratory distress syndrome= hyaline membrane disease; which results in the inability of the alveoli to expand completely due to the lack of surfactant.
· Infant respiratory distress syndrome= IRDS or hyaline membrane disease (HMD) ; a syndrome caused in premature infants by developmental insufficiency (نارسايى) of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. It can also result from a genetic problem with the production of surfactant associated proteins.
· Infection = an inflammatory process caused by exposure to some disease causing organism.
· Inferior Vena Cava= one of the two main veins bringing de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the inferior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
· Infertility= نازايى.
· Inflame= اماس كردن،ملتهب كردن.
· Inflict= وارد کردن خسارات ،ضربت زدن.
· Infract= شکستن.
· Infuse= القاء کردن ،بر انگيختن.
· Ingest= به شکم فرو بردن ،قورت دادن.
· Ingestion= بلع ،داخل معده کردن.
· Inguinal canal= the tubular passage through the lower muscular layers of the abdominal wall that contains the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament in the female. It is a common site for hernias.
· Inguinal hernia= hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males.
· Inguinal= وابسته بکشاله ران.
· Inhale= در ريه فروبردن ،استنشاق کردن.
· Inhibitor= بازدارنده.
· Initially= اصلا”،درابتدا.
· Initiation= ابتکار،شروع.
· Inlet= دهانه ، دخول.
· Inlet= دهانه.
· Insertion= جاسازى ،الحاق ، تعبيه.
· Insufficient= deficient, failing, inadequate, نارسا،نابسنده.
· Insulinoma= tumor of the beta cells in the pancreatic islets which causes increased insulin production.
· Intact= دست نخورده ،سالم ،صدمه نديده.
· Interatrial septum of heart = the partition separating the right and left atria of the heart.
· Intermittent= بينابين ،متناوب ، نوبتى.
· Interphalangeal= located between fingers or toes.
· Interruption= قطع ،انقطاع.
· Interstitial= located between the cells of other tissue; of a space between two objects, درون شبکه اى.
· Intertrochanteric fracture= fracture through the greater and lesser trochanter of the femur.
· Intervention=نفوذ،دخالت , اقدام.
· Interventricular septum= the wall between the ventricles of the heart.
· Intracerebral hemorrhage= a rupture of the arteries within the brain.
· Intracranial MRA= magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the cirle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion).
· Intrathoracic= within the chest.
· Intrinsic=originating or due to causes or factors within a body, organ, or part; ، باطنى ،طبيعى درونى.
· Intubation= insertion of a tube into an organ.
· Intussusception= a telescoping of a proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract into a distal portion of the GI tract causing an obstruction;دخول بخشى از روده در بخش ديگر .
· Invagination= توهم گيرکردگى.
· Inversus= turn upside down.
· Involucrum= a layer of new bone growth outside existing bone seen in pyogenic osteomyelitis..
· Inward= درونى ،داخل رونده.
· Ipsilateral= affecting the same side of the body; ظاهر شده روى همان سمت بدن ، همسو.
· Irradiation= انتشار ، پرتو افکنى.
· Irritable bowel syndrome= (IBS) ; a intestinal condition characterized by abdominal pain and cramps; changes in bowel movements (diarrhea, constipation, or both); gassiness (state of containing gas); bloating; nausea; and other symptoms.
· Irritable= تند مزاج ،تحريک پذير.
· Ischemic= pertaining to localized anemia caused by an obstruction; an insufficient supply of blood to an organ, usually due to a blocked artery.
· Ischial spines= two relatively sharp posterior bony projections into the pelvic outlet from the ischial bones that form the lower border of the pelvis.
· Ischial= استخوان نشيمنگاهى.
· Ischium= plural ischia; lower section of the hip bone;استخوان نشيمنگاهى .
· Isodense= having a radiodensity similar to that of another or adjacent tissue.
· Ivory= دندان فيل، رنگ عاج.
· IVP= intravenous pyelogram ; pyelography; intravenous urogram or IVU; a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.