اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم اسکلتی (T , U , V , W , X , Y , Z)
· Tachypnea= نفس تندی.
· Talus=The bone of the ankle that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint; سراشيبى.
· Tamponade= absorption of blood flow by means of a tampon.
· Taper= make thinner at one end; مخروطی.
· Tapering= gradually decrease in width or thickness at one end, مخروطى شدن.
· Tarsal= the seven bones composing the joint between the foot and leg: medial cuneiform (گوه ای شکل), intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid (داراى شکل مکعب), navicular(زورقى شکل), talus (سراشيبى) , calcaneus.
· T-cells= remember what germs hve been exposed to and how to kill them. T-cells are the key component of the immune system.
· Tectum= the dorsal region of the mesencephalon (mid brain).
· Tegmentum= the ventral region of the mesencephalon (mid brain).
· Telescope= to become forced together lengthwise with one part entering another as the result of collision, تلكسوپ.
· Tension pneumothorax=a life-threatening emergency consisting of air under pressure in the pleural space, due to a one-way valve type mechanism, allowing ↑ entry of air and eventually complete lung collapse on the affected side.
· Terminal ileum= the most distal part of the small intestine.
· Terminal= انتهايى.
· Tetralogy of Fallot= TOF; a congenital heart defect, involve four anatomical abnormalities: 1.ventricular septal defect; 2.pulmonary stenosis; 3.overriding of the aorta (the aorta is positioned directly over aventricular septal defect); 4.right ventricular hypertrophy. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn’t carry enough oxygen.
· Tetralogy= a compound work that is made up of four.
· Thalamus= two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex.
· Thalassemia= a hereditary hemolytic disease caused by faulty (ناقص) hemoglobin synthesis
· Thick= کلفت ،غليظ،سفت.
· Thrombosis= the formation or presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel (thrombosis attached, embolus moving).
· Thrombus=an acute condition involving inflammation and thrombus formation in a vessel.
· Thrust= زور،فشار.
· Thymus= an organ in which lymphocytes mature and multiply. It lies behind the breastbone.
· Thyroid cartilage= the largest cartilage of the larynx, having two broad processes that join anteriorly to form the Adam’s apple; سيب ادم.
· Thyroid Gland = located neck of lower extremity of larynx, butterfly shaped; thyroxine hormone regulates rate of growth and metabolism.
· TIA= Transient (زود گذر،ناپايدار) Ischemic Attack; mini stroke.
· Tonsil= لوزه.
· Tortuous= پيچ وخم دار.
· Trabecula= a small rod, bar, or bundle of fibers; a small septum of fibers forming, with others of its kind, an essential part of the framework (استخوان بندى) of an organ or part.
· Trabecular= ميله ميله.
· Tracheotomy= a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air.
· Traction= کشش،انقباض.
· Transient= زودگذر ،گذرا، ناپايدار.
· Translucent= نيم شفاف ،مات.
· Transposition= جابه جايى.
· Transrectal= through the rectum.
· Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) = surgery to remove all or part of the prostate gland, to treat an enlarged prostate.
· Transurethral= passing through or performed by way (از راه) of the urethra (مجراى پيشاب).
· Transverse fracture= a fracture which occurs at right angles to the long axis of the bone caused by a direct blow or due to pathology.
· Transverse= اريب ،متقاطع ، عرضى.
· Transverse= عرضى ،متقاطع.
· Trapezoid= ذوزنقه.
· Tremble= لرزيدن .
· Tremor= لرزش.
· Trendelenburg position= the body is laid flat on the back with the head lower than the pelvis.
· Tri – malleolar fracture= involving the posterior malleolus (tibial promontory) as well as medial and lateral malleolus. It is often associated with dislocation.
· Tricuspid Valve= separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. It opens to allow the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle. It closes as the right ventricle contracts, preventing blood from returning to the right atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
· Trigger= ماشه , راه اندازى.
· Tripod Breathing= Patients with advanced lung disease will often assume a tripod position (leaning forward, hands on knees) when breathing difficulties occur. This provides a position that optimizes respiratory mechanics.
· Tripod fracture= occurs when the zygoma is fractured at all three sutures: frontal, temporal, and maxilla.
· Tripod= سه پايه.
· Tripoding= an abnormal position to keep the airway open; it involves the leaning forward onto two arms stretched forward.
· Trochanteric= pertaining to a prominence on the top of the thigh bone to which muscles are attached.
· True diverticulum= a diverticulum that includes all the layers of the wall from which it protrudes.
· True lumen= in a dissecting aneurysm, the channel representing the actual intima-lined artery.
· True pelvis= لگن زيرين.
· Trunk= بالاتنه.
· Tubercle= برامدگى گرد; small, rounded projection or process. (Site of muscle and ligament attachment).
· Tuberculosis= an infection of the lungs resulting in cavitation and destruction of the lungs.
· Tuberosity= برامدگى; large, rounded projection, may be roughed (Site of muscle and ligament attachment).
· Tuft of hair= cluster (خوشه ، دسته) of hair.
· Tuft= a bunch of small blood vessels or other small anatomical structures;دسته ،ته ريش , ريشه پارچه ،پرزدارکردن.
· Tumour= swelling or enlargement, a spontaneous new growth of tissue forming an abnormal mass.
· Tunica media= the middle, usually muscular, coat of a blood or lymph vessel; غشا میانی.
· Turnover= برگرداندن ، جابجا شدن ، تغيير و تبديل.
· Twinning= جفت شدن، دوقلو شدگي.
· Twitch= انقباض ناگهانی.
· Ulcer = an open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue; a circumscribed break in the mucosa extending below the epithelium.
· Ulcerative colitis= an inflammatory bowel disease that starts in the rectum and progresses in a continuous pattern throughout the large bowel.
· Ultimately= سرانجام.
· Umbilical= نافى.
· Undulate= موج دار کردن.
· Unresectable= Unable to be removed with surgery.
· UP= ureteropelvice.
· Upon= بر روى ،بمحض ،بمجرد.
· Upper extremity= the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, or hand; also called superior limb, thoracic limb.
· Upright= قائم.
· Uptake= بالا برنده ،بالاگيرى.
· Uremia= condition of blood poisoning due to the retention (نگهدارى) of toxic elements that are usually excreted in the urine.
· Ureter= حالب.
· Ureterocele= sacculation (تشکيل کيسه) of the terminal portion of the ureter into the bladder, as a result of stenosis of the ureteral meatus.
· Urethra= مجراى پيشاب.
· Urethritis= inflammation of the urethra.
· Urgency= فوريت.
· Uterus= رحم
· UV= ureterovesical ; of or relating to the ureters and the urinary bladder .
· Uvula=a small pendant fleshy lobe at the back of the soft palate, زبان کوچک.
· Vacuum phenomenon= the presence of a linear radiolucency in the disk space; a linear or oval radiolucency that corresponds to gas in the intervertebral space.
· Valsalva maneuver= a maneuver in which a person tries to exhale (دم بر آوردن) forcibly with a closed glottis (the windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in strenuous coughing, straining during a bowel movement, or lifting a heavy weight. The Valsalva maneuver impedes (مانع) the return of venous blood to the heart.
· Varicose= swollen, enlarged; having varicose veins.
· Vascular= رگى.
· Vascularize= develop blood vessels; become vascular.
· Vault= طاق.
· VCUG= voiding cystourethrogram; a technique for watching a person’s urethra and urinary bladder while the person urinates (voids).
· Ventricle of the brain= one of a system of four communicating cavities within the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. The four ventricles consist of the two lateral ventricles, the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle ; بطن در مغز .
· Ventricle= cavity in an organ, بطن.
· Ventricular septal defect= a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. This abnormality usually develops before birth. Unoxygenated blood returns to right atrium, then the right ventricle, and the lungs. After leaving the lungs, the oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium, then the left ventricle, and to all the tissues
· Ventricular System= connecting system of internal brain cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid: Aqueduct of Sylvius (canal that is located between the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle); Choroid Plexus (produces cerebrospinal fluid);Fourth Ventricle (canal that runs between the pons, medulla oblongata, and the cerebellum); Lateral Ventricle (largest of the ventricles and located in both brain hemispheres); Third Ventricle (provides a pathway for cerebrospinal fluid to flow).
· Vertigo= سرگيجه.
· Vesicoureteral reflux= VUR; the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters.
· Vesicovaginal= pertaining to the bladder and the vagina.
· Via= از طريق.
· Vigorous= قوى ،شديد
· Viscid= چسبناك.
· Viscous= لزج.
· Vocal = صوتى.
· Vocal cords= vocal folds (چين); composed of twin infoldings (an inward fold) of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx.
· Void=دفع شدن ،باطل شدن , فضاى خالى.
· Voiding= the bodily process of discharging waste matter.
· Volar= وابسته به كف دست يا كف پا.
· Volvulus= a twisting of the large bowel on itself causing an obstruction.
· Vomer= the unpaired flat bone that forms the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum; استخوان ميانى بينى.
· WBC= white blood cell; leukocytes; divided into two types: I. granulocytes / polymorphonuclear leukocytes (1. neutrophils, 2. eosinophils, 3. basophils); II. mononuclear leukocytes [1. lymphocytes (T-cells, B-cells), 2. monocytes ].
· Wedge= any shape that is triangular in cross section; سه گوش ،گاوه.
· Whiplash= ضربه يا تکان شلاقى.
· Whipple procedure= surgical removal of the head of the pancreas, part of the small intestine, and some surrounding tissue.
· Whipple’s disease= a rare bacterial infection primarily affecting the small intestine. It can also affect the heart, lungs, brain, joints, and eyes; characterized by steatorrhea (presence of excess fat in the feces), generalized lymphadenopathy, arthritis, fever, and cough.
· Wilm’s tumour= nephroblastoma; malignant renal tumor of young children characterized by hypertension and blood in the urine and the presence of a palpable mass.
· Wimberger’s sign= a radiographic appearance of a radiodense shell around an ossification centre in the epiphysis of a tubular bone or bones of the carpus (wrist bones) and tarsus (استخوان قوزك پا) that is highlighted by central rarefaction (the act or process of making less dense or the state of being less dense). The shell is caused by persistence and thickening of the provisional zone of calcification.
· Wire= سيم.
· Wormian bones= extra sutural bones; extra bone pieces that occur within a suture in the cranium.
· Wound= جراحت.
· Woven bone= bony tissue characteristic of the embryonic skeleton in which the collagen fibers of the matrix are arranged irregularly in the form of interlacing networks.
· Wrench= to injure or disable by a violent twisting or straining; چرخش ،پيچ دادن.
· Xiphoid= the third and lowest segment of the human sternum.
· Yolk sac= کيسه زرده دورتادور جنين.
· Zenker’s diverticulum= a diverticulum of the mucosa of the pharynx, just above the cricopharyngeal muscle (i.e. above the upper sphincter of the oesophagus).
· Zollinger-Eliison syndrome= Gastrinoma; these tomours arise mainly from G cells in the panceas and secret large amounts of gastrin.This stimulates maximal gastric acid secretion,so that main clinical problem is peptic ulceration.
· Zygoma= استخوان گونه.