اصطلاحات پزشکی + دستگاه تنفسی (A , B)
· AAA= Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
· Abrupt= ناگهانى.
· Abscess = localized collection of pus.
· Absorptiometry= measurement of the amount of radiation absorbed (as by living tissue) especially to determine density.
· Abstinence= خوددارى ، پرهيز.
· Accelerate= تسريع کردن.
· Acceleration= سرعت دادن, شتاب.
· Accompany= همراه بودن.
· Acetabulum= the bony cup which receives the head of the thigh bone.
· Achalasia= a failure of relaxation, especially of the muscle fibers at the junction of the esophagus and stomach; dilation of esophagus due to a functional disorder of the distal esophagus resulting in accumulation of food and fluids in the esophagus – “megaesophagus”
· Achlorhydria= فقدان اسيد کلريدريک در شيره ء معده
· Achondroplasia= is a genetic condition that results in abnormally short stature (قامت) and is the most common cause of short stature with disproportionately (نامتناسب) short limbs (The arm or leg) .
· Acoustic neuroma= a benign tumor arising from the 8th cranial (acoustic) nerve at the angle between the pons and cerebellum.
· Acoustic= صوتى.
· Acute = having a quick onset and lasting a short period of time with a severe course.
· Adduct= بمرکز نزديک کردن.
· Adenocarcinoma= a malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium.
· Adenoma= a benign tumor of a glandular (غده اى) structure.
· Adhere= چسبيدن ،پيوستن.
· Adhesion= چسبيدگي، الصاق
· Adjacent= همجوار،ديوار.
· Adjust= تعديل کردن ،تنظيم.
· Adrenal Gland= a pair of cap shaped organs above each kidney; Cortisone hormone aids in conversion of proteins to sugar, cortex of this gland produces the hormone.
· Advancement= پيشرفت
· Aerate=هوا دادن.
· Aeration= عمل هوادادن،هوادادگي.
· Affection= مهربانى ،عاطفه.
· Aganglionic= lacking ganglion (an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies or neurons) cells
· Agenesis = failure of an organ or part to grow; imperfect organ development, impotence; فقدان، نبود.
· Aggravate= بدتر کردن ،خشمگين کردن.
· Agitation= بيقرارى.
· Ala= a flat wing-shaped process or winglike part of an organism.
· Alignment= هم محور کردن.
· Alpha-antitrypsin= AAT; a protein that circulates in blood. AAT protects the tissues of body from being damaged by substances contained in white blood cells.
· Alter= تغييردادن.
· Altitude= بلندى از سطح دريا.
· Alzheimer’s disease= progressive cerebral atrophy that develops at an earlier age than the senile period resulting in deterioration of the intellectual capacity and memory.
· Amenorrhea= فقدان قاعدگى.
· Anastomosis = a natural or surgical connection between two vessels or tubular structures
· Anastomotic circle= circle of Willis; cerebral arterial circle; a circle of arteries that supply blood to the brain.
· Anemia= a condition of the blood in which the level of hemoglobin in the blood is decreased.
· Anencephaly= congenital absence of the cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses; the absence of the cerebrum and cranial vault.
· Aneurysm= a dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart due to the weakening of the wall; a sac formed by localized dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart.
· Angiotension= a protein, causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up.
· Angulation= زاويه دارى.
· Annular= حلقوى.
· Anomaly = any deviation from the normal especially as result of congenital or hereditary defects.
· Anorexia= lack of appetite for food; کم اشتهايى.
· Anoxia= absence of oxygen supply to an organ or a tissue.
· Ante-mortem= before death.
· Anterior= پيشين.
· Anthracosis= illness caused by the inhalation of coal dust.
· Antimony= سنگ سرمه ،انتيمون.
· Anxiety= اضطراب.
· Aorta= this vessel carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the various parts of the body.
· Aortic Valve= separates the left ventricle from the aorta. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left ventricle to flow throughout the body. It closes as the ventricles relax.
· Apathy= lack of interest or display of emotion.
· Aphasia= partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or using written words.
· Aphthous ulcers = canker sore; a type of oral ulcer, which presents as a painful open sore inside the mouth or upper throat .
· Apical lordotic view= a name for a specific type of x-ray view. Its purpose is to allow the radiologist to see the lung apices, the very tops of the lungs which can be obscured partially by the collarbones on normal frontal views of the lungs.
· Aplastic anemia= a form of anemia in which the capacity of the bone marrow to generate red blood cells is defective. This anemia may be caused by bone marrow disease or exposure to toxic.
· Aplastic= lacking development.
· Apnea = respiratory failure; inability to breathe.
· Apple core lesion= appears when a mass narrows or encircles a tubular structure of the body, typically the bowel and sometimes the esophagus. These lesions usually are found during computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans, a colonoscopy.
· Aqueduct= any canal or passage; کانال يا مجراى اب.
· Aqueductal stenosis= one of the known causes of hydrocephalus and the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus. It can also be acquired during adulthood. In some cases, this is due to a brain tumor compression surrounding the aqueduct of Sylvius.
· Arachnoid= relating to a thin membrane of the brain and spinal cord that lies between the dura mater and the pia mater.
· Arteriolar sclerosis= sclerosis and thickening of the walls of the smaller arteries (arterioles).
· Arteriosclerosis = degenerative hardening of the arteries; a chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity; سخت رگى ،تصلب شرايين.
· Arthrodesis= surgical operation where a joint is fused in a certain position so preventing pain from movement.
· Arthroplasty= is surgery to relieve pain and restore range of motion by realigning or reconstructing a joint.
· Articulation= مفصل بندی.
· Ascites = accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavities.
· Aspirate= خالى کردن ،بيرون کشيدن.
· Aspiration pneumonia= bronchopneumonia resulting from the entrance of foreign material, usually food particles or vomit, into the bronchi.
· Aspiration= استنشاق.
· Assessment= ارزشيابى ،ارزيابى.
· Asthma= swelling and muscular spasm of the bronchi resulting in mucus production and poor air exchange in the alveoli.
· Astrosytoma= slower growing most common type of glioma.
· Ataxia= inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; ناهماهنگى حرکتى.
· Atelectasis= collapse of a lung, where the lung fails to expand properly; collapsing of the alveoli and lobes of the lung.
· Atheromatous= a deposit or degenerative accumulation of lipid-containing plaques on the innermost layer of the wall of an artery.
· Atherosclerosis= a common form of arteriosclerosis in which there is an accumulation of fatty yellow plaques on the intima of an artery; an arteriosclerosis characterized by atheromatous (an abnormal fatty deposit in an artery) deposits in and fibrosis of the inner layer of the arteries. An artery is made up of several layers: an inner lining called the endothelium, an elastic membrane, a layer of smooth muscle, and a layer of connective tissue. Arteriosclerosis is a broad term that includes a hardening of the inner and middle layers of the artery.
· Atlantoaxial= pertaining to the first and second cervical vertebrae which meet at a joint called the atlantoaxial joint.
· Atresia = congenital absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
· Atresia of the biliary tree= the obliteration or hypoplasia of one or more parts of the biliary tree.
· Atresia of the duodenum= the absence of an opening in the duodenum.
· Atresia of the esophagus= the absence of an opening in the esophagus and an abnormal connection between the trachea and esophagus or just a blind end to the esophagus.
· Atriovenous malformation= AVM= abnormal connection between and artery and a vein, commonly seen in the brain, lungs and extremities.
· Atrioventricular septum of heart= the small part of the membranous septum of the heart just above the septal cusp (a fold of a cardiac valve) of the tricuspid valve, separating the right atrium from the left ventricle.
· Atrophy = a wasting or decrease in size of an organ or tissue
· Attempt= کوشش کردن ،مبادرت کردن.
· Attenuation= in physics, attenuation is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux (فلوى الکتريکى) through a medium (واسطه). For instance, sunlight is attenuated by dark glasses, X-rays are attenuated by lead.
· Audible= قابل شنوايى.
· Autopsy= کالبد شکافى.
· AV= Arteriovenous; Atrioventricular.
· Avulsion fracture= bony prominence often serve as attachment for muscle, ligaments and tendons. When these prominences are broken off the main bone by the pull or the passive resistance of a strong ligament, the fracture is known as an avulsion or chip fracture.
· Avulsion= pulling away tissue by force.
· Axillary= زير بغلى.
· Axis= a line through the center of a body, or about which a structure revolves; مهره دوم گردن ،محورهاى مختصات.
· Bamboo = بامبو.
· Band= نوار.
· Barrel chest= a large chest with increased anteroposterior diameter and usually some degree of kyphosis.
· Barrel= خمره ،بشکه.
· Basal ganglia= a group of structures linked to the thalamus in the base of the brain and involved in coordination of movement.
· Basophils= cells that are part of the allergy and parasite recognition system.
· B-cells= secrete the actual antibodies that attach to viruses and bacteria and identify them as things to be destroyed.
· Bead= دانه تسبيحى.
· Beak sign= the appearance of abnormal structures on radiographic images of the GI (Gastrointestinal) tract: of the distal esophagus in achalasia and of the proximal pyloric canal in pyloric stenosis.
· Beak= منقار.
· Bed Ridden= sick, ill, remaining in bed due to medical reasons.
· Belch= اروغ.
· Bence Jones protein= Small protein, composed of a light chain of immunoglobulin, made by plasma cells.
· Benign prostatic hypertrophy= a non-cancerous enlargement that can compress the urethra and will decrease the flow of urine out the urethra.
· Benign= noninvasive tumour.
· Bennett’s fracture= a fracture of the base of the 1st metacarpal with involvement of the first metacarpocarpal joint.
· Bi – malleolar fracture= involving an avulsion fracture of the medial malleolus as well as the lateral malleolus (AKA as Pott’s when dislocation of the joint occurs).
· Biconcave= دوسو گود.
· Biliary tree= the biliary tree is the common anatomic term for the path by which bile is secreted by the liver on its way to the duodenum, or small intestine.
· Biliary= صفراوى.
· Bladder diverticuli= a sac or pouch that occurs in the bladder walls, usually as a congenital.
· Blade= تيغه.
· Blast= دميدن ، وزش.
· -blastic= a combining form meaning “having a given type or number of buds, cells, or cell layers,” or “undergoing a given type of development”.
· Bleed= خون امدن.
· Bloat= پف كرده.
· Bloater= ماهى دودى.
· Blow= دميدن هوا،صدمه ، ضربه.
· Blow-out fracture= a fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase of intraorbital pressure due to a traumatic blow. The orbital contents are forced into the maxillary sinus which results in a fluid (blood) level in the sinus.
· Blow-up= شکم دادگى.
· Blunt= كند، بي نوك، داراي لبه ضخيم.
· Blur= لكه، تيرگي، منظره مه الود، لك كردن.
· Bougie= flexible cylindrical instrument for introduction into the urethra or other tubular organ, usually for calibrating or dilating constricted areas.
· Bout= كشمكش ،تقلا.
· Bow= قوس.
· Bowel obstruction= a stoppage of the gastrointestinal contents from passing through to the rectum. It could be due to something blocking the bowel or the bowel not moving normally, (paralytic ileus).
· Boxer’s fracture = a fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal resulting from a direct blow with a clenched fist against something. There is dorsal angulation at the fracture site with the head of the metacarpal being displaced volarly.
· BPH= benign prostatic hyperplasia; a very common noncancerous cause of prostatic enlargement in older men.
· Brace= an orthopedic appliance or apparatus used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position بابست محکم کردن ، اتل.
· Brachytherapy= treatment with ionizing radiation; a form of radiotherapy where a radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
· Brain= made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.
· Brainstem=region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, resopnsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels: mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata.
· Brim= لبه ،کنار،حاشيه.
· Brittle= ترد و شکننده.
· Broad= پهن, عريض.
· Bronchiectasis= enlargement of the large bronchial tubes; the irreversible dilation of the terminal bronchi and destruction of the bronchial walls.
· Bronchogenic carcinoma= a tumour that arises in the bronchi near the hilum of the lungs.
· Bronchogram= the film obtained by bronchography, air bronchogram air-filled bronchi seen as radiolucent, branching bands within pulmonary densities; A radiograph of the bronchial tree after injection of a radiopaquesubstance.
· Brown tumour= tumors of bone that arise in settings of excess osteoclast activity, such as hyperparathyroidism, and consist of fibrous tissue, woven bone and supporting vasculature, but no matrix. They are radiolucent on x-ray.
· Bruise= كبودشدن.
· Bucket handle fracture= a fracture that produces a tear in a semilunar cartilage along the medial side of the knee joint.
· Bucket= منحنى ،سطل.
· Buckle= تا خوردن ،چين خوردن.
· Build up = بالا بردن توان ،جمع کردن ذخاير.
· Bulge= برامدن ،شکم دادن ،تحدب.
· Bullae= a blister; a circumscribed, fluid-containing, elevated lesion of the skin, usually more than 5 mm in diameter.
· Bullet= گلوله تفنگ.
· Burn out= تمام شدن, خاتمه سوزش.
· Burst= ترکيدن ،ازهم پاشيدن.