اصطلاحات پزشکی + سیستم عصبی (C , D)
· Calcaneus= heel bone; the irregular quadrangular bone at the back of the tarsus.
· Calculi= plural of calculus; سنگ.
· Callus= a callus is the hard new bone substance that forms in an area of bone fracture; پينه.
· Calvarium= top of the skull, dome (برامدگى ،گنبد) of the skull.
· Calyces= calyx, cup-shaped organ or cavity, e.g., one of the recesses (تورفتگي) of the pelvis of the kidney which enclose (حصار كشيدن) the pyramids. Calyces surround the appex of the malpighian pyramids. Urine formed in the kidney passes through a papilla at the apex into a minor calyx then into major calyx before passing through the pelvis into the ureter.
· Cancellous= سوراخ سوراخ ،اسفنجى.
· Cancer of esophagus= a malignant tumour in people over the age of 40.
· Cancer of stomach= a malignant tumour which manifests as four different types; polypoid, ulcerating, superficial spreading and diffuse spreading.
· Cancer of the bladder= arises from the interior of the bladder as polypoid masses.
· Cancer of the colon= a malignant tumour which can affect all parts of the large bowel, but is most common in the rectosigmoid area.
· Cancer of the pancreas= a highly malignant tumour found most often in the head. Hepatocellular cancer is a highly malignant tumour found in patients with chronic liver dysfunction.
· Cannon= لوله توپ.
· Cannonball lesion= a description of the shape of the lesion, which looks like a pile of cannon balls (گلوله توپ).
· Capacity= توانايى ،ظرفيت.
· Capitates= مانند سر.
· Capitulum= head of a bone, end of a bone; نوک يا سر کوچک.
· Carcinoma = a malignant growth that tends to invade surrounding tissue and give rise to metastasis.
· Carina= a cartilaginous ridge within the trachea that runs anteroposteriorly between the two primary bronchi at the site of the tracheal bifurcation at the lower end of the trachea.
· Carotid= pertaining to the carotid artery.
· Carpal= wrist; مچى; any of the eight small bones of the wrist: hamate (بشکل قلاب), pisiform (شبيه نخود), triquetral, lunate (هلالى), trapezoid (ذوزنقه وار), trapezoium, scaphoid (زورقى), capitate (مانند سر).
· Cartilaginous= غضروفى.
· Caseation= necrosis with conversion of damaged tissue into a soft cheesy substance, پنيرى شدن.
· Caustic= any chemical substance that burns or destroys living tissue; نيشدار،تند،تيز،سوزش اور.
· CBD= Common Bile Duct; the duct that carries bile from the gallbladder and liver into the duodenum.
· Cecum= روده کور.
· Celiac= relating to the abdomen or abdominal cavity; belonging to or prescribed for celiac disease.
· Cerebellopontine angle= the anatomic space between the cerebellum and the pons.
· Cerebellum= controls movement coordination and maintains balance and equilibrium.
· Cerebral aneurysm= dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm=dilation or widening).
· Cerebral aqueduct= a narrow channel in the midbrain connecting the third and fourth ventricles.
· Cerebral arteriosclerosis= hardening of the arteries of the brain; condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o is fatty paste).
· Cerebral contusion or concussion= injury to the brain caused by a heavy blow with confusion and amnesia.
· Cerebral cortex= outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responsible for higher mental funtions .
· Cerebral hemispheres= half of the brain.
· Cerebral palsy (CP) =condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination (palsy is paralyis).
· Cerebrovascular accident= sudden impairment of cerebral circulation in blood vessels supplying the brain.
· Cerebrovascular disease= disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain.
· Chalky= گچى.
· Chaotic= پرهرج ومرج، بي نظم.
· Charcot’s foot= Neuropathic osteoarthropathy; Charcot joint; a condition causing weakening of the bones in the foot that can occur in people who have significant nerve damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking the foot eventually changes shape. As the disorder progresses, the joints collapse and the foot takes on an abnormal shape, such as a rocker-bottom appearance.
· Child abuse syndrome= physical abuse of a child by a parent or other primary care giver.
· Chill= سرما، خنكي.
· Cholangiogram= radiographic visualization of the bile ducts after injection of a radiopaque substance.
· Cholelithiasis= stones found within the gall bladder and bile ducts of the hepatobiliarysystem.
· Chondral= cartilaginous.
· Chorda Tendinea= tendons linking the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve in the right ventricle and the mitral valve in the left ventricle.
· Choroid plexus= a network of blood vessels in each ventricle of the brain, producing the cerebrospinal fluid.
· Chronic = presenting slowly and persisting over a long period of time.
· Chronic bronchitis= a chronic infection of the bronchi which results in narrowing of the bronchi due to the production of mucus.
· Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease= a group of diseases, which result in obstructive airflow in the lungs. It includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, pneumoconiosis, bronchiectasis and tuberculosis.
· Circle of Willis= a circular anastomosis that is located at the base of the brain and formed by the anterior communicating artery.
· Circumscribe= خط کشیدن دور،محدود ومشخص کردن.
· Cistern= مخزن اب.
· Claudication= لنگى ،شلى.
· Clavicle=bone linking the scapula and sternum; ترقوه.
· Clay shoveler’s fracture= avulsion fracture of the spinous process of a lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae
· Clay= رس, خاک کوزه گرى.
· Cleft= ترک خورده.
· Clench= close or press together tightly, پرچ کردن.
· Clipping=کوتاه کردن
· Closure= بندش ،بسته شدن.
· Clubfoot= a condition in which one or both feet are twisted into an abnormal position at birth; كج پا، پاچنبري.
· Clump= انبوه، دسته، خوشه.
· Cluster= خوشه.
· Coarctation of the aorta= a narrowing of the aorta usually just below the left subclavian artery near the site of the ligamentum arteriosus (remnant of the ductus arteriosus) joins the pulmonary artery to the aorta.
· Coarctation= تنگی .
· Coarse= خشن ،زمخت.
· Coccyx=triangular bone at the base of the spinal column.
· Cod liver= the liver of the common cod (نوعى ماهى).
· Codman triangle= a term used to describe the triangular area of new subperiosteal bone.
· Cognition= ادراک ،معرفت ،شناخت.
· Coil= بدور چيزى بطورمارپيچ پيچيدن , فنر ،سيم پيچ.
· Coincidentally= by chance.
· Colectomy= کولون برداری.
· Colles fracture = a fracture of the distal radius, within 2.5 cm of the articular surface. There is a dorsal and upward displacement of the distal fragment. An avulsion fracture of the ulnar styloid process, displacement of the head of the ulna and rupture of the triangular fibrocartilage joint disc are also associated with this fracture, (can be refer to as an upside down ‘dinner fork deformity’)
· Colorectal = of the colon and rectum.
· Colostomy= an altered exit from the colon by diverting from a hole in the colon through the wall of the abdomen.
· Comb= شانه.
· Comminuted fracture= a fracture in which the bone is broken into more than two fragments. It may be splintered or crushed.
· Comminuted= خردکردن ،ريز ريز کردن.
· Communicating hydrocephalus= A form of hydrocephalus in which there is a connection between the ventricles and the spinal subarachnoid space.
· Comparison= مقايسه.
· Compatible= سازگار،موافق.
· Compensate= جبران کردن.
· Competency= جديت ، صلاحيت ،لياقت ،شايستگى.
· Competent= capable (توانا،قابل ،لايق).
· Completion= اجرا،انجام ، تکميل.
· Compose= سرودن، ساختن.
· Compound fracture= exists when the fracture site communicates with the outside environment. It is also known as an open fracture. This type of fracture may predispose osteomyelitis.
· Compression fracture= commonly involves vertebrae. Forceful flexion of the vertebral column drives the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body toward each other and produces a wedge-shaped vertebra. May also be seen in the calcaneus resulting from a fall from a height and landing on the heels.
· Compression= درهم فشردگى.
· Compromise= تراضى ،توافق ، در خطر کشف بودن.
· Concavity= حالت مقعر داشتن.
· Concha= a structure that resembles a shell in shape (nasal concha= one of several turbinate (مارپيچ) bones in the nasal cavity); the largest and deepest concavity of the external ear
; استخوان صدفه.
· Condyle= (برامدگي استخوان) rounded articular projection; (Helps to form joints).
· Confine= منحصر کردن.
· Congenital = existing at birth.
· Congenital heart disease= indicates a child born with cardiac defects due abnormalities in the process of development.
· Congenital= مادر زادى.
· Congestion= گرفتگي.
· Congestive heart failure= CHF ; a syndrome characterized by myocardial dysfunction resulting in impaired or diminished cardiac output; the heart does not pump properly and causes an accumulation of fluid in the lungs .
· Conical= مخروطى.
· Conjunction= اجتماع ،پيوستگى ،حرف ربط.
· Consecutive= پى درپى.
· Consolidation= unification; يکپارچگى.
· Constant= هميشگى ،ثابت.
· Constriction= تنگى ، انقباض.
· Contracture= انقباض.
· Contraindication= any reason that a drug should not be taken, including harmful interactions with other drugs and the individual’s personal sensi-tivity and condition.
· Contrast= رنگ زمينه ،کنتراست ،مقايسه کردن.
· Contrecoup fracture= contralateral fracture; a fracture located on the opposite side of the body to the impact, ie a blow to the right side of the mandible fractures the left side.
· Conventional= مرسوم.
· Convexity= برامدگى ،کوژى ،تحدب.
· Convolute= بهم پيچيده.
· Convulsion= تشنج
· Coolness = خنکى.
· Copious= زياد،خيلى.
· Coracoid= a process of the scapula.
· Core= هسته.
· Corner fracture= a fracture at the metaphysis of a long bone which appears as a chip off the edge of the bone, typically seen in child abuse.
· Coronary Arteries= the coronary arteries are the network of blood vessels that carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cardiac muscle tissue.
· Coronoid= resembling the beak of a crow, مانند نوک کلاغ.
· Corporeal= جسمی .
· Corpus striatum= either of a pair of masses of nerve tissue which lie beneath and external to the anterior cornua of the lateral ventricles of the brain and form part of their floor and each of which contains a caudate nucleus and a lentiform nucleus separated by sheets of white matter to give the mass a striated appearance in section.
· Correlate= همبستگى داشتن ،مرتبط کردن.
· Correspond= مطابق بودن.
· Corrosive= ماده خورنده ، فاسد کننده.
· Cortical= relating to or consisting of cortex; غشايى ،قشرى.
· Costa= 1-7 true, 8-12 false; دنده.
· Coxa= the hip bone or hip joint.
· Cranial= جمجمه اى.
· Cranial nerves= 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain.
· Craniotomy= surgical removal of part of the skull to expose the brain.
· Creep= خزش.
· Crescent= هلال.
· Crib death= SIDS, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, suffocation of a baby while sleeping in a crib.
· Cripple= لنگ، چلاق.
· Criteria= محتوى ،ضوابط،معيارها.
· Croup= an infection and swelling of the subglottis causing a characteristic bark-like cough; inflammation of the larynx and trachea (often occurring in infants and young children).
· Crush= فشردن ،خردشدن.
· Crutch= عصاى زير بغل.
· C-spine= Cervical vertebrae.
. Cuboid= داراى شکل مکعب.
· Cuneiform= گوه ای شکل.
· Cupful= amount that a cup can hold.
· Curvature= انحناء.
· Cushing’s syndrome= a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol. Signs : upper body obesity, a rounded face, increased fat around the neck..
· Cut-out= کندن ،برش دادن ،قطع جريان.
· Cyanosis= blueness of the skin caused by lack of oxygen.
· Cyst= a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure.
· Cystic fibrosis= mucoviscidosis; a hereditary disease in which excessive thick exocrine secretions will block the passages in the lungs, pancreas and other digestive structures.
· Cystitis= an inflammation of the urinary bladder.
· Cystogram= a radiograph of the bladder.
· Dacron= a synthetic polyester fiber used to surgically repair damaged sections of heart muscle and blood vessel walls; الياف مصنوعي.
· Debilitation= ناتوان سازى ،تضعيف.
· Debridement= surgical removal of dead tissue and foreign material from a wound.
· Decompress= ازفشار کاستن.
· Decongestant= substance that reduces congestion (احتقان،گرفتگى).
· Decubitus= pressure sore, bedsore; horizontal position.
· Defective= ضعيف ،ناقص ، داراى کمبود
· Deflate= خالى کردن.
· Dehydration= loss of water; abnormal lack of water in the body.
· Delay= ديرکرد،تاخير.
· Demand= احتياج ،خواستارشدن.
· Demyelinate= the loss of myelin in nerve tissue.
· Dens= tooth.
· Dense= چگال ،غليظ،متراکم.
· Densitometer= an apparatus for measuring the optical density of a material, چگالى سنج.
· Dentin= عاج دندان.
· Deposit= ته نشين ،ذخيره کردن.
· Depressed fracture= occurs when the hard surface of the one bone is driven into the softer surface of the another. Commonly seen in the skull and tibial plateau.
· Deprivation= محروميت.
· Desire= ميل داشتن.
· Detail= جزئيات ، بتفصيل شرح دادن.
· Deterioration= تباهى ،زوال ،بدتر شدن.
· Devastate= ويران کردن ،خراب کردن.
· Deviate= منحرف شدن.
· Deviated septum= abnormal displacement of any wall that separates two chambers (usually in the nasal cavity).
· Dextrocardia= a defect in which the heart is on the right side of the body.
· Diabetes insipidus = a rare disorder, resulting in excessive thirst and excessive passage of very dilute urine, due to a hormone deficiency in the pituitary gland, which is situated at the base of the brain. Diabetes Insipidus results from a decreased production of antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin) , the hormone that normally prevents the kidney from producing too much urine.
· Diabetes mellitus= disease in which the body’s ability to metabolize sugar is impaired; results in hyperglycemia.
· Diagonal= اريب ،دوگوشه ، متقاطع.
· Diaphragmatic hernia= movement of the abdominal structures into the thorax resulting in incomplete development of the lung on the affected side.
· Diaphysis= the main or mid section (shaft محور،استوانه) of a long bone.
· Digital rectal examination= a routine screening test that is used to detect any lumps in the prostate gland or any hardening or other abnormality of the prostate tissue. The doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger (digit) into the patient’s rectum, which lies just behind the prostate.
· Digitalis= Drug derived from leaves of the common foxglove and used as a drug that strengthens heart muscle contraction.
· Dilatation= فراخ شدن , انبساط.
· Dilate= اتساع دادن ،گشاد کردن.
· Dilation = expansion of an organ or vessel.
· Dilute= رقيق كردن، ابكي كردن.
· Dilution= رقيق شدگى.
· Dimple= چاه ، گودي.
· Diploe= the central layer of spongy, porous (خلل و فرج دار), bony tissue between the hard outer and inner bone layers of the cranium (جمجمه).
· Diploic= pertaining to the diploe.
· Discrepancy= تطابق نداشتن, اختلافات.
· Dislodge= از جاى خودبيرون کردن ،راندن.
· Displace= جابجاكردن، جانشين شدن.
· Dissect= to cut apart or separate (tissue), especially for anatomical study.
· Distal= دورازمركز،دورازمبدا.
· Distend= swell, expand, stretch.
· Distension= بادكردگي, نفخ
· Distinguish= تشخيص دادن ،ديفرانسيل گرفتن.
· Distort= شکسته شدن ،خميدن ،بد شکل کردن.
· Distortion= deformity, کج شکلى.
· Disturbance= اختلال.
· Disuse= lack of use, neglect, غفلت, تركاستعمال.
· Diverticula= sacs or pouches (كيسه) found in the wall of a canal or organ in the body.
· Diverticulitis= inflammation of diverticula (out pouches of the mucosa and submucosa layer through the muscular layer of the large bowel) of the large bowel.
· Diverticulosis= an intestinal condition characterized by the presence of diverticula in the colon; a small bulging sac pushing outward from the colon wall is called a diverticulum. (Two or more such sacs are diverticula).
· Diverticulum= a small bulging (برامدگي, ورم) sac pushing outward from the colon wall.
· Division= تقسيم ،بخش.
· Dormant= خوابيده ،ساکت ،درحال کمون.
· Dorsal= relating to the back or postterior of a structure.
· Dorsal= پشتى
· Dorsum sellae= the posterior boundary of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
· Dorsum= پشت.
· Downhill and uphill esophageal varices= abnormally dilated veins of the esophagus.Esophageal varices may be called uphill or downhill depending on the direction of the venous flow to the central circulation. ”Downhill” esophageal varices which develop in the upper third of the esophagus are less common than distal esophageal varices, i.e. the uphill type, which is usually produced by portal hypertension .
· Downhill= toward the bottom of a hill; سرازيرى.
· Drainage= emptying of liquid.
· Dribble= دريبل ، ،چکانيدن ،خرده خرده پيش بردن.
· Drip= چکانيدن.
· Drooling= اب از دهان تراوش شدن.
· Drowsiness= خواب الودگى.
· Dual= دوتايى ،دولا،دوجنبه اى ، دو واحدى.
· Dull= ملال اور.
· Duplication = doubling.
· Duplication of collecting system= having two ureters for one kidney that drain independently into the bladder, rather than one ureter for each kidney. This condition often occurs with a ureterocele (the distal ureter balloons at its opening into the bladder, forming a sac-like pouch).
· Duplication of the collecting system= includes two types: * Complete duplication in which there is two separate pelves each with a complete ureter and urethral orifice. * Incomplete duplication in which there is two separate pelves but ureters joined prior to entry into the bladder.
· Dura mater= the outermost of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord.
· Dwarfism= کوتولگى.
· Dyscrasia= an abnormal bodily condition, especially of the blood.
· Dysmenorrhea=قاعدگی دردناک .
· Dysphagia= نارسايى بلع .
· Dysphasia= a partial or complete impairment of the ability to communicate resulting from brain injury.
· Dysplasia= abnormality of development; .alteration (تغيير ،دگرگونى) in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
· Dystrophy = disorder caused by defective nutrition or metabolism.
· Dysuria= painful or difficult urination.